Hearing is also helpful in sensing a stall condition, since the tone level and intensity
of sounds incident to flight decrease as the airspeed decreases. The reduction of the
noise made by the air flowing along the canopy as airspeed decreases is also quite
noticeable, and when the stall is almost complete, vibration and its incident noises
often increase greatly.
Kinesthesia, or the sensing of change in direction or speed of motion, is probably the
most important and the best indicator to the trained and experienced pilot. If this
sensitivity is properly developed, it will warn of a decrease in speed or the beginning
of a settling or "mushing" of the airplane.
The feeling of control pressures is also very important. As speed is reduced, the
"live" resistance to pressures on the controls becomes progressively less. Pressures
exerted on the controls tend to become movements of the control surfaces, and the lag
between those movements and the response of the airplane becomes greater, until in a
complete stall all controls can be moved with almost no resistance, and with little
immediate effect on the airplane. Rudder shakers will normally occur 5-10 knots
prior to the stall, with airframe buffet occurring almost immediately thereafter.
Before performing any stall maneuver, the THREE Cs must be completed. The first C is
CONFIGURATION. Put the aircraft in the appropriate configuration. The second C is
CHECKLIST. Complete the following STALL CHECKLIST and, if on a dual flight, report it
item by item to your instructor!
Bilges - "Clear of loose objects, control lock stowed (in 2 places)."
Restraint harness - "Locked and tight."
Autoignition - "On, AUTO IGN light, ON."
Engine instruments - "Checked." (for normal indications)
Report - "Stall Checklist complete."
The third C is CLEARING TURNS. All stalls will be preceded by clearing turns for a minimum
of 180º utilizing a 30º angle of bank in the landing configuration and a 45º angle of bank clean.
The clearing turn may consist of one turn for a minimum of 180º or two 90º turns in opposite
directions. Turning stalls will be performed in the direction of the last 90º of the clearing turn.
Recovery from all stall or spin maneuvers must be complete and level flight achieved above
5000 feet AGL.
Stalls will be preceded by the rudder shakers and recovery will be initiated as the nose pitches
down (full stall). When practicing stalls, you will take the aircraft to a full stall before initiating
recovery. This is done, not to foster a complacent attitude towards stalls, but to build skill and
confidence in the recovery technique. Obviously, if a stall warning (i.e., rudder shakers) is
encountered at any time other than during stall practice, you will initiate recovery immediately.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES 6-21