Although the takeoff and climb process is one continuous maneuver, it will be divided into three
separate steps for purposes of explanation:
Takeoff roll - That portion of the Takeoff procedure during which the airplane is
accelerated from a standstill to an airspeed that provides sufficient lift for it to
Liftoff - The act of becoming airborne as a result of the wings lifting the airplane off
the ground or the pilot rotating the nose up, increasing the angle of attack to start a
Initial climb after becoming airborne - Initial climb begins when the airplane
leaves the ground and a pitch attitude has been established to climb away from the
takeoff area. Normally, initial climb is considered complete when the airplane has
reached a safe maneuvering altitude and the departure from the airport commences in
accordance with the local course rules.
The use of maximum allowable power, even though it may appear that conditions do not require
it, is used for every takeoff. There is little or no advantage in using reduced power. Reduced
power would be the equivalent of starting the takeoff at a point well down the runway. Reduced
power not only lengthens the takeoff roll but also increases wear on the tires.
The PCL should always be advanced smoothly and continuously to prevent any sudden
swerving. An abrupt application of power may cause the airplane to yaw sharply to the left
Initially, no pressures on the elevator control are necessary beyond those needed to steady it.
Applying unnecessary pressure will only aggravate the takeoff and prevent the pilot from
recognizing when pressure is actually needed to establish the takeoff attitude.
As speed is gained (approximately 30 - 40 knots), the elevator control will tend to assume a
neutral position if the airplane is correctly trimmed. At the same time, directional control should
be maintained with smooth, prompt, positive rudder corrections throughout the takeoff roll. The
effects of torque or P-factor at the initial speeds tend to pull the nose to the left. The pilot must
use whatever rudder pressure is needed to correct for these effects or for existing wind conditions
to keep the nose of the airplane headed straight down the runway. The use of brakes for steering
purposes is to be avoided, since they will cause slower acceleration, lengthen the takeoff
distance, and possibly result in severe swerving.
While the speed of the takeoff roll increases, more and more pressure will be felt on the flight
controls, particularly the elevators and rudder. Since the tail surfaces receive the full effect of
the propeller slipstream, they become effective first. As the speed increases, all of the flight
controls will gradually become effective enough to maneuver the airplane about its three axes. It
is at this point (approximately 50 knots) in the taxi-to-flight transition that the airplane is being
flown more than taxied. As this occurs, progressively smaller rudder deflections are needed to
6-4 FLIGHT PROCEDURES