The feel of resistance to the movements of the controls, as well as the airplane's reaction to such
movements, are the only real indicators of the degree of control attained. This feel of resistance
is not a measure of the airplane's speed, but rather of its controllability. To determine the degree
of controllability, the pilot must be conscious of the reaction of the airplane to the control
pressures and immediately adjust the pressures as needed to control the airplane.
Since a good takeoff depends on the proper takeoff attitude, it is important to know how this
attitude appears and how it is attained. The ideal takeoff attitude is one which requires only
minimum pitch adjustments shortly after the airplane lifts off to attain the speed for the desired
rate of climb.
When all the flight controls become effective during the takeoff roll (approximately 80 knots)
back elevator pressure should be applied gradually to raise the nose wheel slightly off the
runway, thus establishing the takeoff or liftoff attitude. This is often referred to as "rotating."
The wings must be kept level by applying aileron pressure as necessary. Coordinate right rudder
as necessary during rotation. Left yaw should be compensated by right rudder - not aileron.
Pilots of propeller driven aircraft are usually required to input a certain amount of right rudder to
offset gyroscopic slip-stream (the swirling air from the prop hitting the left side of the horizontal
stabilizer) and other factors during the takeoff roll to hold centerline. The other force holding the
aircraft on centerline is the friction between the tires and the runway. At rotation, this friction is
lost and P-factor adds to the left nose yaw tendency of the aircraft. As the nose yaws left, the
tendency is to apply right wing down to counter and maintain centerline. What is really needed
is right rudder at rotation to maintain wings level, centerline, and balanced flight (centered ball).
The airplane should be allowed to fly off the ground while in this normal takeoff attitude
(approximately 80-85 knots). Forcing it into the air by applying excessive back pressure would
only result in an excessively high pitch attitude and may actually delay the takeoff. As discussed
earlier, excessive and rapid changes in pitch attitude result in proportionate changes in the effects
of torque, thus making the airplane more difficult to control.
Although the airplane can be forced into the air, this is considered an unsafe practice and must be
avoided under normal circumstances. If the airplane is forced to leave the ground by using too
much back pressure before adequate flying speed is attained, the wing's angle of attack may be
excessive, causing the airplane to settle back to the runway or even to stall. On the other hand, if
sufficient back elevator pressure is not held to maintain the correct takeoff attitude after
becoming airborne, or the nose is allowed to lower excessively, the airplane may also settle back
to the runway. This would occur because the angle of attack is decreased and lift diminished to
the degree where it will not support the airplane. It is important, then, to hold the attitude
constant after rotation or liftoff.
Even as the airplane leaves the ground, you must be concerned with maintaining straight flight as
well as holding the proper pitch attitude. Upon liftoff, the airplane should be flying at an attitude
which will allow it to accelerate to 120 KIAS.
FLIGHT PROCEDURES 6-5