If the proper interval is established and maintained throughout the individual patterns, the danger of a
midair collision is greatly reduced. However, it is mandatory that each pilot exercise extreme caution and
take particular care not to cut the aircraft ahead out of the pattern. One of the most likely places for this to
occur is where the pilot pulls off target and looks for his interval to commence his turn to the abeam. If
the pilot ahead has extended off target farther than normal and the pilot behind picks up the wrong aircraft
as his interval and commences his turn, an extremely dangerous situation exists. There are now two
pilots using the same aircraft as their interval. A similar danger can also arise near the roll-in point. A
simultaneous run (simo run) is a short interval at the roll-in, usually resulting from an early or deep roll-in
on the part of one pilot. In order to help avoid dangerous situations, these rules must be followed:
Maintain proper pattern airspeed and altitude.
Use proper voice procedures.
When turning to the abeam position after a run, if you do not see your interval and you have not
heard him call his position, do not climb to pattern altitude. Remain 2,000 ft below the high (20-
degree and 30-degree) pattern or 1,000 ft below the low (10-degree) pattern, and ask your interval for
If you find you are too close to the aircraft ahead of you, make your pattern corrections when coming
off target. Remember that if you do extend off target, you must call "Extending."
Do not hesitate to sacrifice radio discipline when safety is involved. If at any time you are not sure
where your interval is, or you are not sure that the aircraft you have in sight ahead is really your
interval, do not hesitate to make a radio transmission. Always call a simo run if you see it.
If you are in a run when someone calls "Simo run," follow these procedures:
Report the abort and gradually displace the aircraft laterally from the run-in line and fly to clear
Regain sight of all other aircraft.
Reestablish flight sequence at lead's discretion.
Going below the min-safe altitude during the pullout from the dive can be the result of any one, or a
combination, of the following situations. Remember the breakaway cross on your head-up display. If a
1.5-second reaction time followed by a 1 g/second pull to a sustained 4 g's would allow your aircraft below
1,000 ft AGL, you will get a large "X" in the center of your display. If you see it, pull up immediately. Do
not depend on the cross as a cue; pull off when you are supposed to. The cross is not generated in dives
of less than 15 degrees. Also, your radalt is set so that applying 4 g's over 2 sec will bottom you out no
lower than 500 ft AGL. If you hear the radalt during your dive, recover immediately!