Quantcast Timing Corrections - P-5570033
 

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LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
CHAPTER ONE
will keep you on course. As you get closer to your selected point, recheck your
heading system and select another feature that is on course.
Keep doing this until you find and positively identify your turnpoint or turn on time.
Use funneling features between 10 and 2 o'clock to steer back to course. You may
find roads on either side of you that converge on your checkpoint. A valley between
two ridgelines may lead you directly to your checkpoint. Funneling features are
relatively common, but they might not be obvious. Study your chart for possible
funneling features prior to flight. Again, make sure you know where you are and
where you should be before making a course correction. A good technique is to
confirm your current position by at least two other references before making a course
correction.
If you cannot find any features between 10 and 2 o'clock, use a technique known as
Standard Closing Angle (SCA). SCA is calculated by dividing 60 by your GS in
NM/min. This results in an SCA of 20 for 180 knots GS. The SCA is then applied
to your planned heading and held one minute for every mile you are off course. You
could also apply double the angle for half the time (40 for 30 sec per mile off course)
but as you increase the heading corrections, you will increase the timing error your
correction induces. Making too rapid or too acute a correction may affect your
timing. For instance if you were 2 miles left of course and chose to turn 90 right for
2 miles and then 90 left on course, you would increase your overall running time by
40 seconds at 180 knots GS.
An example of a course correction follows: you confirm you are 2 miles left of
course and want to correct to course minimizing timing errors. You cannot find a
feature in the distance that is on course and you cannot find any funneling features to
steer back to course. You decide to use the SCA to correct. With 180 knots GS you
would turn 20 right for 2 minutes (or 40 right for 1 minute). The correction you
choose depends on the length of the leg on which you are making the course
correction. A short leg may not allow you to make a 2-minute correction. When
back on track, analyze why you got off track. Were you holding the desired heading
or did you let your heading drift? Is your RMI/HSI working properly or do the winds
appear different than planned? Whatever you determine, apply the appropriate
corrections to avoid repeating your mistake.
b.
Timing Corrections. Timing corrections are simply a matter of changing your GS
for a period of time or off-course maneuvering. Off-course maneuvering will change
the distance you fly which will affect your timing. All timing corrections should be
made prior to the IP. No timing corrections shall be made from the slowdown to the
DZ/LZ. The following methods are recommended:
i.
Off-Course Maneuvering. Off-course maneuvering works well on routes that
are circular (semicircular) or have turns of more than a few degrees between
legs.
LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION 1-23


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