Figure 1-8 Estimating Distances by Comparison
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CHAPTER ONE
LOW-LEVEL AND TACTICAL FORMATION
Figure 1-8 Estimating Distances by Comparison
7.
Position Fixing. Checkpoints are used to determine a fix. A fix is a definite position or
point on the ground indicating the position of the aircraft at a definite time. You establish a fix
by noting the relationship of the aircraft to one or more checkpoints. There are three basic types
of fixes. The simplest type of fix is flying directly over a checkpoint. A second type of fix is
distance and direction from a checkpoint. An example of this type of fix is knowing that your
aircraft is 5 miles north of a small town. The third type of fix is establishing aircraft position by
its direction from two checkpoints. An example of this type of fix is placing the aircraft north of
a town and west of a lake.
8.
Turnpoints. Fly directly over turnpoints unless deviating for known threats or when
making timing corrections. When approaching the turnpoint, ensure the PAC positively
identifies the correct point. Over or abeam the point say "ready, ready, turn" to ensure that
everyone knows it is a turnpoint and not a checkpoint.
9.
Corrections to Course and Time. You will find you can get very close to a target simply
by using DR navigation. Use the chart for course control and timing accuracy. Occasionally,
you will find it necessary to make an in-flight correction to course or airspeed because of
improper heading control, improper power control, faulty flight planning, winds stronger than
forecast, etc. Making in-flight corrections to course and time are simple, however you must
know how far off course you are before determining a correction. Making a correction without
knowing your exact location typically results in greater error!
a.
Course Corrections. Use the following techniques, in the following order, to correct
course deviations:
Aim for a feature in the distance that is on course. Before selecting your point,
ensure you are on course and have rechecked your heading system for accuracy. This
1-22 LOW-LEVEL NAVIGATION

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