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Therefore, homing should be used only in the event maintaining course is not required; it is therefore
not procedurally correct to home when cleared direct to a fix.
C. Proceeding Direct.
Tune and Identify the Station.
Turn. Turn the aircraft in the shorter direction to place the head of the bearing pointer under the top
index or upper lubber line.
Center the CDI. Center the CDI with a TO indication (does not apply if using RMI only, such as
proceeding direct to a NDB).
Maintain Course. Maintain the selected course to the station. (Correct for winds.)
Inoperative Procedures. If either the compass card or the bearing pointer is inoperative, the HSI may
be used to determine the bearing to the station by rotating the course set knob until the CDI centers
with a TO indication in the TO-FROM indicator. The magnetic bearing from the aircraft to the station
then appears underneath the course arrow. Until verified by radar or other navigation equipment,
consider this bearing information unreliable.
D. Course Intercepts. Course interceptions are performed in many phases of instrument
Intercept Heading. Use the techniques below to determine an appropriate intercept heading.
Angle of Intercept. The angle of intercept is the angular difference between the heading of the aircraft
(intercept heading) and the desired course.
Rate of Intercept. The rate of intercept is determined by observing bearing pointer and CDI
movement. The rate of intercept is a result of intercept angle, groundspeed, distance from the station,
and if you are proceeding to or from the station.
Lead point. The lead point is determined by comparing bearing pointer or CDI movement with the
time required to turn to course.
In-bound (HSI).
Tune and identify the station.
Set inbound course. Set the desired inbound course in the course selector window and check for a
TO indication.
Turn. Turn in the shorter direction toward the CDI to place the head of the course arrow in the top
half of the instrument case. This precludes an intercept angle in excess of 90. Roll out of the turn
when the bearing pointer is between the upper lubber line and the head of the course arrow to
establish an intercept heading. Displacing the bearing pointer 30 from the upper lubber line will
normally ensure a moderate rate of intercept. The aircraft symbol will appear to be proceeding
toward the CDI at an intercept angle equal to the angle formed between the upper lubber line and the
head of the course arrow. Angle of intercept must be greater than number of degrees off course, but
not more than 90.
Maintain. Maintain the intercept heading until a lead point is reached, then complete the intercept.
In-bound (RMI Only).
Tune and identify the station.
Determine heading. Determine an intercept heading. Locate the desired inbound course on the
compass card. From the desired course, look in the shorter direction to the head of the bearing
pointer. Any heading beyond the bearing pointer, within 90 of the desired inbound course, is a no-
wind intercept heading. In many instances, an intercept heading selected 30 beyond the bearing
pointer ensures a sufficient rate of intercept. An intercept angle is formed when the head of the
bearing pointer is between the desired course and the top index on the RMI. As an aid, visualize the
problem utilizing the RMI center as the station and the tail of the bearing pointer as the present

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