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Lack of Specific ATC Departure Instructions.
It is equally important to understand what you must do when you do not have any specific ATC departure
instructions. Unless cleared otherwise by ATC (via a SID or radar vector, for example), you must fly the
IFR departure procedure established for the runway you select. If the airport meets diverse departure
criteria, you may depart using a diverse departure.
Navigation Procedures. An instrument flight, regardless of its length or complexity, is a series of
connected basic instrument flight maneuvers. The information received from the navigation instruments or
an air traffic controller should be considered as advising you what maneuver to perform, when to perform
it, or what adjustments, if any, are required. Departure procedures, enroute charts, STARs, instrument
approach procedures, and similar publications should be considered as textual or pictorial presentations of a
series of connected instrument flight maneuvers. Radio instrument procedures are flown using a
combination of the techniques described in this section (proceeding direct, radial to arc, course intercepts,
NOTE: Where procedures depict a ground track, the pilot is expected to correct for known wind conditions. In
general, the only time wind correction should not be applied is during radar vectors or when told to fly or maintain
runway heading.
A. Setup of Navigation Instruments. Using the acronym TIMSS can be an effective technique for
setting up NAVAIDS.
Tune. Tune to or select the desired frequency or channel.
Identify. Positively identify the selected station.
VOR. The station identification may be a repeated three-letter Morse code group, or a three-letter
Morse code group alternating with a recorded voice identifier.
TACAN. The TACAN station transmits an aural three-letter Morse code identifier approximately
every 35 seconds.
ADF. The nondirectional radio beacon transmits a repeated two or three-letter Morse code group
depending on power output.
ILS/LOC. The ILS localizer transmitter puts out a repeated four-letter Morse code group. The
first letter of the identifier is always "I" to denote the facility as an ILS.
NOTE: Voice communication is possible on VOR, ILS, and ADF frequencies. Consult FLIP documents to
determine the availability of specific stations.
Monitor. Monitor station identification while using it for navigation. Removal of identification serves
as a warning to pilots that the facility is officially off the air for tune-up or repairs and may be
unreliable even though intermittent or constant signals are received. The navigation signal is
considered to be unreliable when the station identifier is not being received. Monitor the course
warning flag (VOR, TAC, ILS) or the audible Morse code group (NDB) continuously to ensure
adequate signal reception strength.
Select. Select proper position for the FD SEL switch (VOR/ILS, TACAN) and the TACAN SEL
switch (NORMAL, RNAV).
Set. Set the selector switches (single-needle switch and double-needle switch on the RMI; course
select knob and heading select knob on the HSI) to display the desired information on the navigation
B. Homing to a Station.
Tune and Identify the station.
Turn. Turn the aircraft in the shorter direction to place the head of the bearing pointer under the top
index of the RMI (VOR or NDB) or upper lubber line of the HSI (TAC). Adjust aircraft heading, as
necessary, to keep the bearing pointer under the top index or upper lubber line. Since homing does not
incorporate wind drift correction, in a crosswind the aircraft follows a curved path to the station.

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