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JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
406.
Low Altitude Approaches.
A. Overview.
Low altitude approaches are used to transition aircraft from the low altitude environment to final approach
for landing. Low altitude instrument approach procedures exist for one purpose -- to assist you in guiding
your aircraft to the final approach fix (FAF), on course, on altitude, and in the final approach configuration.
It has become normal to expect ATC to provide radar vectors to final; however, you must always be
prepared to execute the "full procedure" when appropriate. There are two broad categories of low altitude
approaches: course reversals and procedure tracks. Course reversals are further broken down into
procedure turns (45/180 maneuver and holding technique) and holding-in-lieu-of procedure turns (HILO
PT ). Procedural tracks are commonly found using arc/radial combinations or specified teardrop tracks.
Reference figures 406-1 and 406-2 below. Before we look at each type in detail, here are some guidelines
that apply to all low altitude approaches:
IAF. Most approaches begin at an IAF. ATC will normally clear you to the appropriate IAF then for the
approach. Unless ATC specifically clears you otherwise, you are expected to fly to the IAF and execute
the full instrument approach procedure as published. Use one of the following "Six T's" techniques may
help in accomplishing the tasks required upon passage of the fix.
Navy technique (IAF & FAF)
Air Force technique (IAF & FAF)
Time. Hack the clock
Time. Hack the clock
Turn. Turn to intercept course
Turn. Turn to intercept course
Time. Not required
Throttles. Reduce power to initiate descent
Transition. Reduce power to initiate descent
Twist. Set the inbound, teardrop, or front
course
Twist. Set the inbound, teardrop, or front course
Track Complete intercept and track the
course
Talk. "Departing 3000', commencing approach"
Talk. "Departing 3000', commencing
approach"
("FAF inbound" mandatory non-radar)
("FAF inbound" mandatory non-radar)
Final Approach Segment. Some approaches depict only a final approach segment, starting at the FAF. In
these cases, radar is required to ensure you are properly aligned with the final approach course at the
appropriate altitude. When ATC clears you for the approach, maintain the last assigned altitude until
established on a segment of the published instrument approach procedure (IAP). An example is the
"VOR/DME RWY 30L" at Houston/William P. Hobby Airport (HOU).
Dead Reckoning (DR) Courses. Many IAPs utilize DR courses. Although course guidance may not be
available, the DR course should be flown as closely as possible to the depicted ground track. Use lead
points for turns to and from the DR legs to roll out on the depicted ground track. Fly the depicted ground
track by correcting for wind. A good example is the DR course from the RAYMO IAF on the "ILS RWY
17R" at Harlingen/Valley International Airport (HRL).
4-32
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE


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