JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
Fundamental Concepts. When flying a NDB NH approach, the RMI and HSI compass cards will be
"frozen." The ADF needle now presents relative bearing information only; e.g. it will still point to the
station relative to the nose of the aircraft, but the heading the needle points to on the compass card will
not be the correct heading and therefore no magnetic bearing or course information can be gained from
the RMI alone. To determine magnetic course and bearing information, begin by mentally placing the
heading from the magnetic compass (supplied by the copilot/IP) under the lubber line. Then count the
number of degrees the head of the #1 needle is deflected from the lubber line to find the aircraft's
relative bearing to the station. Add or subtract (+ to the right/- to the left) this number (the relative
bearing) from the aircraft's current magnetic heading to arrive at the magnetic bearing to the station.
Magnetic bearing information from the station can be found in the same manner by using the tail of the
#1 needle when heading away from the station. As an example, if the heading at the top of the RMI
card is 355, the needle is pointing 45° to the left of the lubber line, and the current heading is 135, then
the aircraft is on the 090 magnetic bearing to the station or the 270 magnetic bearing from the station
(MH + RB = MB...in this example: 135 - 045 = 090). Remember, the tail of the needle always rises
and the head always falls. These are the fundamental concepts necessary to complete the NDB NH
approach while maintaining your situational awareness (SA).
Specific Procedures. Unless radar is available or another procedure is specified, request direct to the
IAF for the full procedure turn and utilize the 45/180 course reversal procedure described below to
align the aircraft with the final approach course. Turn to put the head of the needle on the nose, using
RMI only procedures to maintain course and fly direct to the NDB. Utilize known winds and attempt
to establish a wind-corrected heading to maintain your course direct instead of homing to the station.
Continue to ask the CP for heading calls and set the heading bug on the corresponding heading to
maintain your SA while proceeding direct. Enroute, compute a heading to intercept the outbound
course and determine seconds required for a timed turn (3°/sec or 10 sec for every 30° mark on the
compass card). Immediately after station passage, commence the previously computed timed turn to
intercept the outbound course. Track the outbound course for one minute using heading calls from the
co-pilot, then start a 15 second/45 degree turn to the outbound PT heading. After one minute
commence a one minute/180 degree reversal. Inbound on the procedure turn, determine your position
to maintain SA and ensure the aircraft hasn't been blown to the non-maneuvering side. Assuming you
maintain the PT inbound heading exactly, you will need to turn inbound when the head of the needle
falls and approaches the 45° benchmark. Continue to request heading calls from the CP to track the
desired course inbound to the FAF. Configure at the normal point and continue the approach using NH
procedures. If a missed approach is required, it generally requires simply turning to the head of the
needle and flying direct back to the station. See examples in Figures 408-1, 408-2, and 408-3.
Cleared Direct NDB. The following example demonstrates NH procedures to follow when cleared
direct to an NDB.
Call for the current magnetic heading (360°)
Turn right 45° to the head of the needle.
Call for heading and establish a wind-corrected track direct to the NDB
Figure 407-1. Cleared Direct NDB.
RADIO INSTRUMENTS STAGE