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NOTE: In many cases, the minimum visibility required for the approach will not allow you to see the runway
environment until you are beyond the VDP. This accentuates the need to compute a VDP and determine a point
along the approach when you will no longer attempt to continue for a landing. A common error is to establish a
high descent rate once the runway environment is in sight. This can go unnoticed during an approach without
visual glidepath guidance and may lead to a short and/or hard landing. Caution should be used to avoid accepting
a long touchdown and landing roll.
Alignment. Be aware the final approach course on a non-radar final may vary from the runway
heading as much as 30 (except localizer) and still be published as a straight-in approach.
Stepdown Fix. A stepdown fix between the FAF and the MAP is sometimes used. You may not
descend below the stepdown fix altitude unless you can identify the stepdown fix (you must be capable
of simultaneous reception of final approach course guidance and the stepdown fix).
Localizer Back Course.
In order to fly a back course localizer approach, set the published front course in the course selector
window. The term "front course" refers to the inbound course depicted on the ILS/localizer approach
for the opposite runway. On the back course approach plate, the published front course is depicted in
the feather as an outbound localizer course.
Reverse Sensing Explained. The localizer back course is exactly what it sounds like the extension of
the localizer in the opposite direction. The approach utilizes the same localizer antenna and frequency
as the ILS/localizer front course. Because the localizer antenna gives no bearing information, the CDI
displays only directional deflection from centerline, regardless of course selected in the course select
window. For this reason, if you twist in the final approach course when flying a LOC BC, the CDI
will appear to be commanding you the wrong direction. For example, if it appears to be showing your
aircraft left of centerline, commanding a right turn to correct, it is really showing you left of the front
course, meaning you are right of the back course. This is called reverse sensing and is avoided by
twisting in the front course as stated above.
Sensitivity. Because a localizer antenna is usually located beyond the departure end of the runway, it
is therefore prior to the approach end of the BC runway. The close proximity to the antenna when
flying the LOC BC makes the CDI much more sensitive than when flying a normal localizer approach.
False Glideslope. False glideslope signals may exist in the area of a LOC BC that may cause the G/S
warning flag to disappear. Disregard all G/S indications when executing a BC approach unless a G/S
is specified on the IAP.
E. No Heading Approaches.
It is unlikely a dual compass system failure will occur in the T-44 without losing navigational
equipment also. Assuming you're IMC, the best course of action in such scenarios is to utilize radar
service if available and request no-gyro vectors to a no-gyro PAR or ASR. Nevertheless, practice no-
heading approaches are an essential element in complete instrument training and will increase not only
your instrument proficiency but also your situational awareness. The following paragraphs offer
guidance for no-heading scenarios you will see in the RI curriculum. First, troubleshoot the heading
failure and transfer the controls to the co-pilot if the system failure affects only one RMI/HSI. Remain
VMC and land as soon as practical if weather is not a problem and this is an option. Secure the electric
heater, air conditioner, windshield heat, and windshield wipers ("Big Four"); all of which influence the
wet compass. Ensure your co-pilot is familiar with the magnetic compass and ask for heading calls,
using the heading bug as a reminder of your present heading. These initial procedures are common to
all no-heading approaches. If radar service is unavailable, the aircraft must be positioned on final
using the following pilot-nav procedures.
NOTE: The IP will call heading to the nearest 5 mark when requested. Only cardinal headings will be called out
in turns when requested.
NDB No Heading Approach. The NDB no-heading (NH) approach may be the least complicated type
of no-heading approach, but it requires a thorough knowledge and understanding of the following
concepts and procedures to maintain situational awareness.

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