JOINT ADVANCED MULTI-ENGINE T-44A
CHAPTER 2. BASIC INSTRUMENTS STAGE (BI)
Introduction. In the BI stage, you will gain proficiency flying a multiengine aircraft utilizing instruments.
Good instrument flight is attained by smooth and precise attitude control. Attain attitude control by:
(1) visualizing and setting a desired power and attitude combination while studying and controlling the
aircraft attitude on the attitude gyro, (2) trimming the new attitude, and (3) confirming this attitude by
scanning attitude crosscheck instruments. Once attitude control is mastered, professional instrument flight
is attained by setting power and attitude to achieve exact performance. The skills you gain flying full panel
and partial panel basic instrument patterns will be utilized extensively in the Radio Instrument Stage.
NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual (IFM). This manual contains detailed information regarding basic
instrument flying and should be used to enhance the FTI. It discusses instrument uses, limitations, scan,
maneuvers, and physiological aspects of flying.
Flight Instruments. Refer to the IFM for a discussion of sensations of instrument flight. There are six
basic flight instruments (attitude indicator, directional indicator, airspeed indicator, altimeter, VSI, and turn
and slip indicator) which are common to most aircraft. The professional aviator knows not only the
functions of these instruments, but their capabilities, limitations, and characteristics. For a detailed
description of equipment, refer to the T-44 NATOPS Manual.
Full Panel Scan. During instrument flight, you must divide your attention between attitude, performance,
and navigation instruments. Every instrument pilot must develop proper division of attention (scan)
without fixating. When you develop the proper scan, you will be able to quickly note deviations and take
corrective action. Refer to the IFM for detailed information.
A fundamental principle of flight is attitude plus power equals performance. To obtain desired
performance you must maintain the correct attitude and power setting. Another important fundamental is
to use trim extensively. For every change of power or attitude, you must make small trim adjustments in
order to relieve control pressures. In most transitions from level flight, you will have to reset power,
attitude, and retrim for the new attitude. The mechanics of transitions will be performed in a specific
sequence: (1) Power, (2) Attitude, and (3) Trim--P.A.T. Although power and attitude changes are almost
simultaneous, you will lead with power lever movement then set the new attitude as you continue the
power lever movement to the desired power range. After the power and attitude are set, trim. The
generally accepted sequence for trimming the aircraft is: (1) rudder, (2) elevator, (3) aileron. The rudder
trim is usually initiated first because it seems difficult for most pilots to hold the ball centered with rudder
for an extended period and secondly, yaw affects both nose and aileron trim. Thus, if rudder were trimmed
last, both nose and aileron would have to be retrimmed to some extent. It will be impossible to relax and
maintain desired performance for an extended period without extensive use of trim.
Attitude. The primary scan instrument is the attitude indicator. This instrument shows pitch and roll
relative to the horizon. Maintain balanced flight by scanning the ball and using rudder pedals/trim to
keep the ball centered. The altimeter, IVSI, airspeed indicator, and compass provide additional
information to augment the attitude indicator. They also enable you to control the aircraft while
flying partial panel.
Heading. The directional indicator (wet compass for partial panel) indicates heading. Heading
should be corrected primarily by reference to the attitude indicator. First, use the heading indicator
to determine the direction and amount of turn required. Then, use the attitude indicator to roll into
the AOB required for the proper rate of turn while referencing the turn needle and ball. Complete
the turn by rolling wings level on the attitude indicator. Recheck the heading and repeat the process
Airspeed and Altitude. Airspeed and altitude are controlled by a combination of nose attitude and
power. If power is held constant, nose attitude will control airspeed and altitude. If attitude is held
constant, power will control airspeed and altitude within the limits of power available. An off
airspeed or altitude situation can be corrected by nose attitude, power, or a combination of both
depending on the desired results.
BASIC INSTRUMENTS STAGE