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NOTE: The IVSI on the pilots side of the T-44 gives nearly instantaneous vertical speed information. The copilot's
VSI is a conventional instrument and is subject to major fluctuations with rapid vertical movement. When utilizing
the IVSI you must make smooth control inputs to set a desired rate of climb or descent. It is a valuable instrument
since it quickly shows trends, but avoid chasing the needle.
Needle Calibration. In the T-44A, a double needle width (in the dog house) deflection of the pilot's turn
204.
needle should yield a standard rate turn. However, due to slight errors in calibration, it is necessary to
check the turn needle against the clock to determine the deflection that will produce the required rate of
turn. Needle calibration is conducted to ensure the precision required for BI partial panel work. A needle
calibration is required on all flights where partial panel airwork is to be practiced.
(1)
Description. A standard rate turn (3° of turn per second) will always be approximately a double
needle width deflection, regardless of airspeed or AOB. However, the AOB and radius of turn
required for a standard rate turn will vary with true airspeed.
Technique. Note the position of the turn needle when on a constant heading. Smoothly roll into a
(2)
double needle width turn on the turn and slip indicator and note the AOB on the attitude indicator.
Start the clock turning through a 10° mark on the direction indicator. Note the time it takes to
achieve 30° of turn. Allow a minimum of 90° of turn to accurately calibrate the needle. When the
needle is calibrated, note the deflection and use that deflection for all turns in that direction. Repeat
the procedures for turns in the opposite direction.
NOTE: The copilot's turn needle provides a standard rate turn with a single needle width deflection.
205.
Constant Rate Climbs, Descents and Standard Rate Turns. Climbs, descents and turns are
accomplished essentially the same as in the FAM stage except as delineated below. These maneuvers are
practiced in order to refine the skills required for instrument flight. In the BI stage all climbs and descents
are made at a rate determined by the pattern being flown. Airspeed is held constant in all climbs, descents,
and turns. All turns are made at a standard rate. However, the AOB and radius of turn required for a
standard rate turn will vary with TAS (for the T-44, AOB is approximately 16-18% of TAS). As airspeed
decreases, the AOB required for a standard rate turn decreases. AOB is more critical than rate of climb due
to the time it takes to make corrections. Corrections to altitude can be done quickly.
(1)
Constant rate climbs/descents are accomplished by varying power as required to maintain a constant
vertical speed. Nose attitude is varied to maintain constant airspeed.
(a)
It is important to adjust pitch slowly and smoothly to transition to a climb/descent from
normal cruise.
(b)
Once the climb/descent is established, cross-check the altimeter against the clock and make
power corrections as necessary to correct the rate of climb/descent. Remember to adjust pitch
with each power change in order to maintain constant airspeed.
(2)
Standard rate turns (SRT) are accomplished by smoothly rolling to the AOB required to put the turn
needle at the standard rate position. Full panel standard rate turns are started with the clock's second
hand on the 6 or 12 position of the clock, using a three second lead to compensate for attitude
change. Partial panel standard rate turns are started with the clock's second hand on the 6 or 12
position.
(a)
Slight pitch up adjustment is required to compensate for loss of lift. Prolonged turns require
power addition to maintain constant airspeed.
(b)
Smoothly roll out of the turn anticipating the roll out heading by 1/3 the AOB; e.g., for 30°
AOB, start rolling out 10° prior to roll out heading.
(c)
As wings roll toward level, anticipate a tendency for the aircraft to gain altitude.
(d)
Adjust AOB as necessary to a maximum of 30° to catch up in a turn.
2-2
BASIC INSTRUMENTS STAGE