MANUAL OF NAVAL PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
(1) Improper cooling of food.
(2) Inadequate cooking times and temperatures.
(3) Contamination of food by infected food service workers,
including poor personal hygiene.
(4) Food prepared a day or more prior to serving.
(5) Contamination of food, not receiving further cooking, by
addition of raw (contaminated) ingredients. Examples; spices and similar
(6) Foods remaining at unsafe temperatures.
(7) Failure to reheat foods to proper temperature.
(8) Cross-contamination of cooked food with raw foods or by
employees who mishandle food or improperly cleaned equipment.
3-8.2 Steps of a HACCP Plan
A HACCP Plan is divided into seven (7) principles, or steps.
a. Principle #1.
Identify potentially hazardous foods.
(1) Hazard and Risk Definitions:
(a) Hazard: Any biological, chemical, or physical property that
may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.
(b) Risk: A likelihood of a hazard.
(2) The first step is to identify the hazards associated with the
(3) Begin with the menu. Select the "most hazardous" menu items or
ingredients. Particular attention should focus on foods or ingredients
that are common to many different menu items. For example:
(a) Ground beef may be an ingredient in many different menu
items including spaghetti sauce, creamed beef, chili, meat loaf and
(b) Don't focus initial efforts on menu items or ingredients
that are only served one or two times per month.
(4) Then look at menu items with the greatest potential for
contamination or those which are most hazardous.