CHAPTER 1, FOOD SAFETY
(a) Meat sauce, gravy, quiche and high protein salads require
extensive preparation steps. Contamination can occur at any step, or the
raw products can be contaminated.
(b) Items such as fresh fish or shell fish can be contaminated
and spoil rapidly.
(5) Work one menu item or ingredient at a time. Set up a flow
chart from receiving, through storage, preparation, cooking, serving and
disposal of the item. Include rapid cooling and storage of advance
preparation foods and leftovers if appropriate. On this flow chart
identify where the item could be contaminated as well as the relative risk,
severity and probability, of each hazard.
b. Principle #2.
Identify the Critical Control Points (CCPs) in Food
(1) A CCP is defined as a point, step, procedure in which a food
safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced. Examples of
critical control points CCPs may include but are not limited to: cooking,
chilling, specific sanitation procedures, prevention of cross-
contamination, and certain aspects of employee and environmental hygiene.
(2) The following questions may be used in identifying CCPs:
(a) Can the hazard be prevented, eliminated or controlled
through measures or procedures that can be implemented by the food service
1 Contamination of animal feed with pesticides, or
contamination of poultry with salmonella are hazards, but they are not CCPs
because the food establishment cannot control them. Purchasing USDA
inspected meat and poultry are important but not normally a CCP.
2 Cooking beef or poultry to correct time and temperature
are CCPs. The food service facility can control hazard associated with
(b) Does this step eliminate or reduce a hazard?
(c) Could contamination occur, or could contamination increase
to unacceptable levels?
c. Principle #3:
Establish Critical Limits (CLs) for the CCPs.
(1) Critical Limits are defined as the criteria that must be met
for each preventive measure associated with a CCP. Critical Limits may be
set for preventive measures such as temperature, time, physical dimensions,
humidity, moisture level, water activity, pH, acidity, salt concentration,