T-34C PRIMARY FORMATION FLIGHT TRAINING
ABEAM: A position, either port or starboard, which is 90º off the longitudinal axis of the
ACUTE: A condition in which the Wingman is incorrectly positioned forward of a designated
BEARING LINE: An imaginary line drawn from the Lead to the Wing aircraft. Usually
identified by selected visual checkpoints and referred to as an angle off the longitudinal axis of
the lead aircraft.
Figure A-1 Bearing Line
BLIND: A term used to communicate visual contact is lost with a member of the formation
while maneuvering in VMC (opposite of "Visual").
BREAKUP: A maneuver utilized to separate formation aircraft and establish them in trail.
CHECKPOINT: A selected point or set of points on the lead aircraft, which are utilized by the
Wingman to determine relative position.
CLOSURE RATE: Overtake created by airspeed or angular advantage; can be positive or
CROSSUNDER: A maneuver utilized to change the position of the Wing aircraft from one side
of Lead to the other.
CUTOUT: A visual checkpoint referring to the outermost corner of that portion of the wing cut
out to allow installation of the aileron.