desired direction. Caution must be exercised, however, when applying brakes to
avoid over-controlling. Brakes should not be used until full throw of the rudder no
longer provides the necessary control forces.
The ailerons also serve the same purpose on the ground as they do in the air (they
change the lift and drag components of the wings). During the after-landing roll they
should be used to keep the wings level in much the same way they were used in
flight. If a wing starts to rise, aileron control should be applied towards that wing to
lower it. The amount required will depend on speed because, as the forward speed of
the airplane decreases, the ailerons will become less effective. Techniques for using
ailerons in crosswind conditions are explained further in the section on crosswind
Full-Stop Landing. In order to execute a full stop, lower the nosewheel
to the deck, and bring the PCL smoothly into full BETA. Maximum
effectiveness of reverse thrust occurs with higher airspeeds. Therefore,
BETA will precede braking action. A single smooth application of brakes
is generally used to fully stop the aircraft. The amount of brake pressure
applied is commensurate with forward speed and runway remaining for
turnoff. If a long runway (5000 feet or more) is being utilized for a full
stop, the speed of the airplane should normally be allowed to dissipate
through friction and drag. Gradual deceleration saves on tires and brakes.
Touch-and-Go Landing. When making touch-and-go landings, utilize
the P.A.T. principle by smoothly applying the power to full forward.
Remember that right rudder pressure will be required as the engine spools
up. As power becomes available following engine spool-up, raise the nose
to the takeoff attitude and allow the aircraft to smoothly take off. Climb
out at 90 KIAS (full flap)/ 100 KIAS (no flap) and trim for balanced
flight. When safely airborne (90 KIAS with a positive rate of climb) reset
1015 ftlbs., raise the flaps and accelerate to 100 KIAS (if required) while
maintaining the same climb attitude. Retrim the aircraft and continue
climbing at 100 KIAS. When number one with interval, make a crosswind
call on the UHF (as required) and commence a turn to the downwind leg
using a maximum of 30º AOB. Fifty feet prior to pattern altitude, begin
the transition to level off at pattern altitude by reducing power to
approximately 500-550 ftlbs. of torque, then lowering the nose to
maintain 100 KIAS and trim.
Landing Transition to Touchdown
Approaching touchdown, smoothly reduce PCL towards idle.
Coordinate gradual backstick pressure to land smoothly on the mainmounts in a
FLIGHT PROCEDURES 6-21