Landing Roll-out. The landing roll-out is a very important phase of the landing,
because directional control must be maintained during the roll-out. The roll-out is not
completed until normal taxi speed is reached, the aircraft is brought to a stop, or the
aircraft becomes airborne for touch-and-go landings.
To properly execute this phase of a landing, you must understand what factors may
influence the maneuverability of the aircraft after the landing has been made and use
sound judgment in applying corrections. Some of these factors are the center of
gravity, strong crosswinds and/or gusty winds, and a low oleo strut or tire inflation.
Special precautions will have to be taken for crosswinds any time the winds are gusty.
Any time there is a change in direction, centrifugal force will cause the center of
gravity of the aircraft to be moved outward and away from the direction of the turn.
If the turn is severe, centrifugal force may move the center of gravity far enough to
cause the outside wing to strike the ground. For this reason, swerves should be
avoided whenever possible. Remain on the runway centerline until a safe taxi speed
is reached prior to turning off the runway for a full-stop landing.
While considering the dominant factors which affect the landing roll-out, it is
important to analyze what controls are available to counteract them and what effect
they have on the aircraft. The three controls that can control the aircraft on the
ground are the rudder, brakes, and ailerons. The PCL is not used to aid the pilot in
directional control. Adding power after a swerve has developed may aggravate the
condition, because of the effect of torque, thereby increasing the severity and possibly
resulting in a ground loop.
Ensure your heels are on the deck and use only rudders to control direction. Since
you will be rolling fast, only small rudder corrections need be applied. The rudder
serves the same purpose on the ground as it does in the air (it controls the yawing of
the airplane). The effectiveness of the rudder, however, is dependent on the airflow
which, of course, depends on the speed of the airplane. As the speed decreases and
the nosewheel has been lowered to the ground, the nosewheel provides more positive
The brakes of an airplane serve the same primary purpose as do the brakes of an
automobile (that is, to reduce speed on the ground). In airplanes, however, they may
also be used as an aid in directional control when more positive control is required
than can be obtained with rudder alone.
To use brakes, the pilot should slide the toes or feet up from the rudder pedals to the
brake pedals. If rudder pressure is being held at the time braking action is needed,
that pressure should not be released as the feet or toes are being slid up to the brake
pedals, because control may be lost before the brakes can be applied.
During the ground roll, the airplane's direction of movement may be changed by
carefully applying pressure on one brake or uneven pressures on each brake in the
7-20 LANDING PROCEDURES