When pilots use this technique, they achieve a more precise and competent overall piloting
ability. It results in less difficulty in holding desired altitudes, controlling airspeed during
takeoffs, climbs, descents, and landing approaches, and in maintaining headings in the traffic
pattern, as well as on cross-country flights.
The use of integrated flight instruction does not, and is not intended to, prepare pilots for flight in
instrument weather conditions. It does, however, provide an excellent foundation for flight
during Basic Instrument (BI) and Radio Instrument (RI) stages of training, and will result in the
pilot becoming a more accurate, competent, and safe pilot.
A sharp lookout for other aircraft must be maintained at all times, particularly when using
instrument references, to avoid the possibility of collision with other aircraft. Frequently, other
aircraft are unnoticed until they suddenly appear within the limited area of the pilot's vision.
Consequently, it is imperative that the pilot not only divide attention between controlling the
airplane by outside visual references and flight instruments, but also be observant of other
aircraft. For visual flight, the pilot's scan should be directed outside the cockpit at least 80% to
90% of the time!
Airplane control is composed of four components:
1. Pitch control: Pitch control is the control of the airplane (longitudinal axis) about its
lateral axis by applying elevator pressure to raise or lower the nose, usually in relation to the
Bank control: Bank control is the control of the airplane (lateral axis) about its
longitudinal axis by use of the ailerons to attain the desired angle of bank in relation to the
Yaw control: Yaw control is the control of the aircraft (longitudinal axis) about its vertical
axis by use of the rudder.
4. Power control: Power control is the control of power or thrust by use of the PCL to
establish or maintain desired airspeeds in coordination with the attitude changes.
The attitude indicator (attitude gyro), heading indicator (Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)),
altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and airspeed indicator are the instruments used as references
for control of the airplane.
The attitude indicator shows directly both the pitch and bank attitude of the airplane.
The heading indicator shows directly the airplane's direction of flight.
The altimeter indicates the airplane's altitude and, indirectly, the need for a pitch
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS