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CHAPTER FOUR
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS
400.
INTRODUCTION
This section discusses and explains the fundamental flight maneuvers upon which all flying tasks
and techniques are based. In learning to fly, as in any learning process, fundamentals must be
mastered before the more advanced phases can be learned.
401.
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT MANEUVERS
Maneuvering of the airplane is generally divided into four flight fundamentals:
1.
Straight and level flight,
2.
Turns,
3.
Climbs, and
4.
Descents.
All controlled flight consists of any one or a combination of these basic maneuvers. Proper
control of an airplane's attitude is the result of the pilot knowing when and how much to change
the attitude, and then smoothly changing the attitude by the required amount. When flying by
reference to objects outside the airplane, the effects of the pilot's control application on the
airplane's flight attitude can be seen by observing the relationship of the position of some portion
of the airplane to the outside references.
At first, control of the airplane is a matter of consciously fixing the relationship of a specific
reference point on the airplane to the horizon. As basic flight skills are developed through
experience and training, the pilot will acquire a continuous awareness of these relationships
without conscious effort. The reference points will be used almost subconsciously in varying
degrees to determine the attitude of the airplane during all maneuvers.
In establishing the reference points, the airplane should be placed approximately in the desired
attitude, and then a specific point should be selected. No two pilots see this relationship exactly
the same. The apparent position of reference points will depend on each pilot's seat height and
lateral position, and/or the pilot's eye level and line of sight. It is imperative that the student
utilize the same seat position on each flight so that the reference points remain the same.
402.
INTEGRATED FLIGHT INSTRUCTION
In introducing the basic flight maneuvers, the "integrated flight instruction" method will be used.
This means that each flight maneuver will be performed by using both outside visual references
and the flight instruments.
FUNDAMENTAL FLIGHT CONCEPTS 4-1


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