INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES WORKBOOK
MSA minimum altitudes may be displayed as sectors of the Terminal Arrival Area (TAA). See
the RNAV (GPS) RWY 35 at Pensacola Regional for an example of TAA minimum altitudes.
Types Of Nonprecision Approaches
A procedure turn is a maneuver used whenever it is necessary to reverse direction to establish the
aircraft inbound on the final approach course. Three types of procedure turns to be discussed
here are the 45º procedure turn, the teardrop turn, and the holding pattern in lieu of procedure
View the VOR RWY 8 approach at Pensacola Regional for a 45º procedure turn example.
The procedure turn is a required maneuver (bold lines on the approach pate) except (1) when the
symbol NoPT is shown, (2) when radar vectoring to the final approach course is provided, (3)
when an aircraft is established in a one minute holding pattern at the IAF, or (4) when the
procedure turn is not depicted on the approach plate. Under any one of the above conditions a
pilot may NOT execute a procedure turn unless he asks for and receives clearance from ATC to
do so. A barb symbol indicates the direction or side of the outbound course on which the
procedure turn is made. However, the point at which the turn may be commenced and the type
and rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot.
View the NDB 2 RWY at Cairns AAF for a teardrop procedure turn example.
The teardrop procedure turn consists of departure from an initial approach fix on an outbound
course followed by a turn toward and intercepting the inbound course. Its purpose is to permit an
aircraft to reverse direction and lose considerable altitude within reasonably limited airspace.
View the VOR or GPS-A at Crestview for an example of a holding pattern in lieu of procedure
A holding pattern in lieu of procedure turn may be specified for course reversal on some
instrument approach plates. In such cases, the holding pattern is established over an immediate
fix or FAF. The holding pattern distance or time specified in the profile view must be observed.
All procedure turn approaches must be completed within the "remain within the distance"
depicted in the profile view. This distance is called the procedure turn maneuvering area and is
usually 10 NM. However, the maneuvering area may be as large as 20 NM or as small as 5 NM.
If no course reversal is necessary, a procedural track will still be specified using a heavy black
line. This is the intended aircraft ground track from the IAF to the FAF and may include only
the inbound course (straight-in) or a combination of arcs and courses (arcing approaches). Some
procedure tracks may even include dead reckoning courses.
View the TAC RWY 19 at Pensacola NAS for an example of a straight-in approach. View the
TAC RWY 23 at North Whiting for an example of an arcing approach.
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES 3-15