INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES WORKBOOK
A single approach plate may incorporate multiple types of approaches (i.e., two arcing
approaches and a 45º procedure turn) at separate IAFs. It is important to clarify which procedure
is cleared by ATC.
Review the VOR or GPS-A at Crestview for an example of GPS overlay.
GPS approaches may be "built" on top of an existing approach procedure. This type of approach
is known as GPS "overlay" and was designed as a way of quickly integrating GPS into the
existing IFR structure.
View the RNAV (GPS) RWY 26 at Pensacola Regional for an example of a GPS approach.
GPS only approaches are built on the "Basic T" design or a modification of that format. The "T"
design incorporates from one to three IAFs; an intermediate fix (IF) that serves as a dual purpose
IF (IAF); a FAF and a missed approach point (MAP). A standard racetrack holding pattern may
be provided at the center IAF, and if present may be necessary for course reversal and for
altitude adjustment for entry into the procedure.
A stepdown fix may be provided on the final approach course (i.e., between the final approach
fix and the airport) for the purpose of authorizing a lower minimum descent altitude after passing
an obstruction. The stepdown fix may be identified by a NDB bearing, radar fix, VOR radial or
DME. View TACAN RWY 25L at Pensacola NAS. Notice the radial information in the plan
view and compare it with the altitude information given in the profile section.
The missed approach track is indicated by the line of dashes. Note that the missed approach
track starts after the missed approach point. In other words, when executing a missed approach,
do not make a turning maneuver until you pass the Missed Approach Point. Additionally, notice
that the missed approach track is portrayed on the plan view as well as the profile section.
316. PROFILE VIEW SECTION
Viewing the same approach at Patrick AFB, notice the various altitudes in the profile section.
The procedure turn altitude is the altitude the aircraft may not descend below until established
inbound on the final approach course.
A Maltese cross symbol denotes the Final Approach Fix (FAF) for nonprecision approaches.
The altitude at the FAF indicates the minimum altitude an aircraft may descend to until passing
The altitude at the stepdown fix denotes the altitude an aircraft may not descend below until
passing the stepdown fix. If the stepdown fix cannot be identified for any reason, the altitude at
the stepdown fix becomes the MDA for straight-in landing minimums.
3-16 INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES