Air Combat Maneuvering
bogey will attempt to exploit your increasing closure/angle off situation. Anticipate this; ensure that you
employ proper follow-on maneuvers that will maintain your advantage and get you to a weapons envelope.
The low yo-yo is not just an exercise; it is a tactic that will be employed whenever necessary. Start by
pulling the nose down toward the inside of the bogeys turn. Be careful not to pull the nose down too low
which will create excessive closure and provide the bogey with an easy counter. Once established,
position the nose in front of the bogey (lead pursuit). Approaching the desired weapons range, work the
nose back up toward the bogey while avoiding heavy buffet. Pulling the nose up too quickly into buffet will
cause a high energy loss and a missed shot opportunity. As you decrease nose-to-tail, be aware that an
experienced bogey will exploit your higher closure rate and higher angle off by pulling harder, in an
attempt to force an overshoot.
Should excessive closure develop, you must react immediately to prevent an overshoot. Two excellent
follow-on maneuvers existthe high yo-yo and the displacement roll.
Figure 9: HIGH YO-YO
Figure 9 shows a high yo-yo, which is a lag pursuit maneuver designed to reduce angle off and closure
rate while increasing or maintaining nose-to-tail. The high yo-yo prevents an in-close/low-to-medium
angle off overshoot. The out-of-plane maneuvering places the velocity vector of the fighter above the
plane of attack and exchanges airspeed for altitude. The combination of the out-of-plane maneuvering
and the slower airspeed allows you to turn with a smaller horizontal radius while aligning fuselages and
reducing your TCA. Your slower airspeed will also reduce the closure rate allowing you to maintain or
increase nose-to-tail. An alternative to the high yo-yo would be to pull power and pop the speed brakes.
Although a viable alternative, this will deplete your energy package and may reduce your offensive
When you recognize excessive closure or a potential overshoot, start the high yo-yo by quarter-rolling-
away from the bogeys maneuvering plane and pulling into the vertical. Any delay in your pullup may
T-45C Revision 1