Air Combat Maneuvering
If a pilot has lost sight, he will transmit Lost sight and respond to the other aircraft in the flight when
they transmit further instructions. Be sure to differentiate between Lost sight and No joy. Lost
sight means I cannot see anyone, anywhere. It is a call made strictly to maintain safety. No joy
responds to your wingmans call that he has sighted a bogey that you cannot see.
During a horizontal scissors or weave, the nose-high aircraft shall go high and the nose-low aircraft
shall go low. The low aircraft has the responsibility for maintaining flight separation. Always
transmit your call sign and your intent. This will ensure you maintain the safety bubble between
aircraft. However, any delay in calling your intentions may seriously jeopardize the safety of the
The aircraft in the sun is responsible for safe separation. If the up-sun aircraft loses sight,
broadcast, Lost sight, and maintain a predictable course. If the down-sun aircraft loses sight,
break off the attack, lag the up-sun aircraft and broadcast, Lost sight. If you are in the sun, you
are using a tremendously powerful tactic because it blinds the bogey. But because he is blind, it is
your responsibility to maintain the safe separation. Also, if the weather is hazy, the sun creates a
halo when you are looking down with the sun at your back. If the bogey is in the halo area, he
cannot see you.
Maintain a 500-ft bubble around your aircraft at all times. Always assume the other aircraft does not
see you. This safety rule applies for training, both in the Training Command and in the fleet. In the
real world, though, you must consider your adversary. For instance, if you maintain 500 ft on a
head-on pass with a bogey who has forward-quarter weapons, you may be putting yourself directly
into his weapons envelope. In the real world, know who you will be going up against as much as
On head-on passes, both aircraft will maintain the established trend. Where no trend exists, each
aircraft will give way to the right to create a left-to-left pass. Broadcast your intentions. This is
simply a rule of the road. You may have to change this rule in a situation where you do not have
enough maneuverability to pass left-to-left without crossing the bogeys nose, which would put you
in a possible head-on midair. Maintain enough situational awareness to call your intentions long
before a possible midair situation develops.
No blind lead turns. A blind lead turn is when your nose is out in front of the bogeys flight path, and
you cant see the bogey.
A G awareness maneuver is required prior to ACM; aircrew who experience GLOC shall
immediately terminate ACM and return to base.
Minimum range for guns tracking is 1,000 ft; head-on guns are prohibited. See the CNATRA
Weapons Envelope in the TacForm FTI.
A knock-it-off will be called for any of the following situations:
a. Any violation of Training Rules. Good flight discipline is essential for safety in the ACM arena.
b. Dangerous situation/loss of situational awareness.
c. Radio failure/loss of ICS (see #7 above).
d. Airspeed less than 80 knots (nose-high and decelerating)/departure/out-of-control flight. Initiate
recovery and transmit knock-it-off. This is a serious safety factor. In a slow speed situation, if
you continue to maneuver and a possible midair situation develops, you will be unable to
maneuver to avoid it.
e. Unbriefed aircraft enters the fight. This relates back to the first rule stating that you must stay in
the designated area and other aircraft must stay out.
f. Aircraft enters a cloud. In the Training Command, this rule is for obvious safety reasons.
However, in the real world, the environmental conditions may become your best ally in an
g. Bingo fuel state reached.
h. GLOC (see #14 above).
i. Training objectives have been met. This is usually determined by the flight-lead (or instructor).
T-45C Revision 1