The T-45 aircraft is highly resistant to upright and inverted spins. While upright spins have been achieved
in flight tests, they are unstable and tend to oscillate out of the spin. During departure and spin testing, no
upright spins were achieved with rudder pedals centered and lateral and longitudinal stick neutralized.
Stabilized inverted spins are possible and have been entered from pure vertical maneuvers (tail-slides).
If you depart controlled flight, you should neutralize the controls and forcefully center the rudder pedals
until you determine whether the out-of-control motion is a post-stall gyration or a spin. Analyze AOA,
airspeed, and turn needle to determine the nature of the out-of-control motion. If the AOA is positive for
any length of time, the aircraft is upright. If the AOA is at or fluctuating near zero, the airplane is probably
inverted. If the turn needle or AOA is changing significantly, the aircraft is probably not in a spin, but is in a
Pegged AOA, airspeed oscillating between 50 and 160 KIAS, and pegged turn needle verify a fully devel-
oped spin. AOA pegged at 0 units indicates an inverted spin, while AOA above 28 units indicates an
upright spin. Due to the disorienting nature of spins, particularly inverted, you must reference the turn
needle to determine spin direction. Turn needle to the right indicates a right spin, while turn needle to the
left indicates a left spin.
An engine anomaly will likely occur during post-stall gyrations and spins. Monitor EGT and RPM after
departure/spin recovery to determine engine status. An inverted spin will likely result in either a flameout
or surge, regardless of power setting.
The T-45 has three inverted spin modes (see Figure 16): the -60 degree AOA mode, the -40 degree AOA
mode, and the -25 degree AOA mode. Airspeed provides your best indication of spin mode. The -60 de-
gree mode is characterized by airspeed oscillating between 50 and 120 KIAS, while the -40 degree mode
results in airspeed oscillating within a range of 100 to 160 KIAS. Differentiation between the -60 and the -
40 degree modes is not required for successful recovery. The third spin mode, the -25 degree AOA mode,
can only be achieved with anti-spin controls held above 160 KIAS. Normal airspeed range for the -25
degree mode is 140 to 200 KIAS.
You can recover from either of the higher negative AOA inverted spin modes (airspeed below 160 KIAS) by
applying full rudder pedal and full lateral stick opposite the turn needle. Longitudinal stick should be
neutral. Holding in rudder opposite to the turn needle may be difficult due to high sideslip forces on the
rudder. Up to 300 pounds of force may be required to hold rudder opposite the spin direction. Monitor
airspeed carefully once you apply anti-spin controls. Lateral stick deflection, which is anti-spin for the -60
and -40 degree spin modes, is for the -25 degree mode, so you must neutralize lateral stick when air-
speed increases past 160 KIAS or when the aircraft recovers, whichever occurs first. Center the rudder
pedals when the AOA increases through 5 units.
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