NOTE: Releasing rudder pedal force prior to recovery may allow the rudder to blow out in the
direction and significantly delay recovery.
Although unstable and transitory in nature, two upright spin modes exist in the T-45. The first mode is at
30 degrees true AOA (AOA indicator above 28 units). This low AOA (spiral) mode has mild oscillations in
roll. As the oscillations build, the aircraft may transition to an inverted spin mode or to the 45-degree AOA
upright spin mode. The 30-degree mode is characterized as a jerky, diving spiral since the average nose
position becomes lower with each turn, and airspeed will increase with every turn. It could also be de-
scribed as a jerky nose low rudder roll.
The second mode is at a true AOA of 45 degrees. This mode will begin to oscillate in roll as AOA ap-
proaches 45 degrees, and the roll oscillations will grow divergently. The early oscillations will probably
cause the engine to surge. As oscillations build, the aircraft will gyrate out of the upright spin mode and
either recover or couple down into either a pitchdown departure or an inverted spin.
Recovery from either upright mode is accomplished by neutralizing lateral and longitudinal stick and
rudder, retracting the speed brake (if extended), and retarding throttle to idle. Hold this until the spin mode
has been determined. The airplane will likely recover from either upright spin mode with neutral controls.
If in the 45-degree mode (airspeed steady at approximately 100-110 KIAS), with neutral controls, apply
rudder against the spin (opposite turn needle) and lateral stick in the direction of the turn needle. If in the
30-degree spin mode (airspeed 150 KIAS or higher and increasing), maintain neutral controls until recov-
ery is indicated. Failing to retract speed brakes will extend recovery time. Neutralize lateral stick at 160
KIAS. Recovery can be recognized by: AOA fluctuating or decreasing (as opposed to remaining at 30
units), yaw and roll rates damping out, and airspeed increasing.
DEPARTURE/SPIN RECOVERY PROCEDURES
Forcefully centering the rudder pedals and neutralizing the control stick usually recover the aircraft from a
departure. Extended speed brakes are destabilizing and may aggravate the departure and delay recovery.
If the rudder blows out due to sideslip forces, a spin is possible and recovery will be delayed. You should
expect engine anomalies following any departure. Retarding the throttle to idle will minimize engine
problems but will not eliminate the potential for a flameout or locked-in surge.
You should check the airspeed, AOA, and turn needle to monitor your recovery progress or to determine if
you are in a spin. If your airspeed is oscillating between 50 and 160 KIAS, AOA is pegged at 0 units, and
the turn needle is peggedyoure in an inverted spin. Although a stabilized upright spin is unlikely, it would
be indicated by AOA above 28 units with similar airspeed and turn needle indications.
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