Red lights typically identify areas requiring caution; and they can be used to mark obstructions, equipment
on taxiways, the end of the runway, and the waveoff lights. They are also used to mark the top of
obstructions in and around the airport.
There are three basic types of wind direction indicators, the wind tee, the wind sock, and the tetrahedron.
The wind tee and wind sock are illuminated and free-swinging. The triangular tetrahedron is marked by
red lights on its port side and green lights on its starboard side and down the center and is also free-
The location of the arresting gear is identified by internally lit arrows.
Night taxi procedures are similar to day procedures except for required variations because of limited
visibility and depth perception. Use the taxi/landing light during taxi whenever its use is required and taxi
more slowly at night than you would during the day and always on the centerline.
GROUND PERSONNEL SIGNALS
Daytime and nighttime hand signals differ slightly. First, because taxi directors use lighted wands instead
of their hands and arms, some signals have been modified to accommodate the wands. Refer to
Appendix B, Nighttime Hand Signals, for a description of each nighttime hand signal.
TAKEOFF AND DEPARTURE PROCEDURES
Be prepared to readjust the intensity of your interior lights so that you will have maximum outside visibility
without glare on the canopy and minimum eye strain when reading your instruments.
Night takeoff procedures are identical to those for the day except that you rotate and perform initial
climbout on instruments. As you continue your climb, begin an inside-outside scan. Look outside for
traffic and aircraft attitude and inside to monitor engine instruments and to cross-check with the flight
DETERMINING PRESENT POSITION
You have three basic methods of determining your present position: pilotage, dead reckoning, and
navigational aids (NAVAIDs).
In pilotage you maintain your position by referencing a chart. Remember to locate a feature on the map
first and then scan outside to locate recognizable landmarks (e.g., cities, towers, airfields, obstructions)
that compare to your estimated position on your map.
Dead reckoning allows you to estimate your position by using your course, ground speed, and elapsed
time from your last known position. Remember to account for the winds when making these
determinations. Calculating your ground speed as soon as possible after you level off is a good idea when
using this method of navigation. Recalculate your ground speed after you make significant changes in
course or whenever you have nothing else to do.