You may also use your navigational aids in the T-45 (TACAN/DME, VOR and in T-45C GPS/INS readouts)
to determine your position, but during night familiarization your primary means of navigation is pilotage.
COMPUTING DISTANCE FROM LAST KNOWN POSITION
In order to determine your distance from the last known position, you need to know your ground speed.
Determining your ground speed is accomplished by timing for a known distance (i.e., between
checkpoints) and then dividing distance by time.
EXAMPLE: To calculate ground speed, if the distance between checkpoints is 30 nm and it takes 5
minutes to fly between them:
30 (nm) divided by 5 (minutes) = 6 nm per minute or 360 knots
Next, you need to calculate the time flown from your last known position. With these two variables, you
can determine how far you have flown.
EXAMPLE: To calculate the distance flown in 4 minutes at a ground speed of 360 knots (6 nm per
minute), multiply ground speed by time:
6 (nm per minute) X 4 (minutes) = 24 nm
Now, using distance flown and the course maintained, you can estimate your present position.
As you pass each checkpoint on your route, you are required to communicate your current status.
Communications must include aircraft side number, checkpoint name, fuel state, and next checkpoints
If you inadvertently go into a cloud, transition to instruments and maintain wings level. If you dont
immediately go VMC again, make a 30-degree AOB turn for 180 degrees and return to VMC conditions.
Report your situation to the safety pilot.
ARRIVAL AND FIELD ENTRY PROCEDURES
Night arrival and field entry procedures are similar to those performed during the day except that poor
depth perception and the visual effects of field lighting require extra caution. Maintain 250 KIAS as youre
entering the pattern and cautiously break to arrive at the proper abeam distance.
Night landing procedures are nearly identical to those performed during the day. However, from the 180
on, you will need to rely more on your instrumentsthe AOA indicator/indexer, the radar altimeter, the VSI,
ADI, and in T-45C the Velocity Vector. Believe what your instruments tell you because the lack of distinct
external visual references in combination with lighting could lead to a sensation of vertigo.