At one-half your initial altitude or at reaching the published penetration turn altitude, initiate the penetration
turn (do not exceed 30 degrees AOB) to intercept the final approach course.
NOTE: Do not exceed the minute-to-live rule in the penetration descent.
At this point, the approach procedure can vary depending on whether the NAVAID is located at the field or
If the approach has a FAF (station located away from the field), station passage is normally the FAF
and timing will determine the MAP. After completing the penetration turn, transition to the landing
configuration, and check speed brakes retracted, prior to reaching the FAF. At station passage, start
timing to the MAP, basing your timing on ground speed and the FAF to MAP table on the approach
plate under the sketch. Extend speed brakes, reduce power if necessary, transition to descend on-
speed to MDA. (Do not exceed 1,000 fpm.) Report FAF with gear to ATC and landing checklist
complete on the ICS. Continue to a landing if you visually acquire the runway up to the MAP and you
are in a position to land or maneuver to land safely. If you do not have the runway environment in
sight when at the MAP (i.e., time expires), execute a missed approach.
If the approach does not have an FAF (station located at the field), transition to the landing
configuration, on-speed, speed brakes extended, as soon as you are wings level inbound to the
station. Descend to the published MDA using the procedures in the paragraph above and start
looking for the runway. Station passage is usually the missed approach point (MAP) for this type of
If executing a low altitude TACAN and VOR approach that require the aircraft stay within 10 nm of the
IAF/field, maintain 200 KIAS during the procedure turn and penetration.
NOTE: Generally you should not exceed the 1,000 fpm rate of descent during the final portion of the
approach. If the approach requires a higher rate of descent, request clearance from the instructor prior to
exceeding 1,000 fpm.
TACAN (and VOR/DME) navigation equipment supplies both range and distance information, making
arcing approaches possible. Because range information is available, you can determine the fixes (IAF,
FAF, and MAP) defined by DME (Figure 40).
The course line may be used for tracking all radials on the approach (e.g., initial inbound radial, final
When executing a TACAN/VOR DME approach and before reaching the IAF, set the final approach
course on the HSI display and select the CDI mode. At the IAF, intercept and maintain the approach
course as published. Lower the nose and accelerate to 250 KIAS. At 250 KIAS, reduce power to flight
idle. Adjust nose attitude as required to maintain 250 KIAS and 4,000-5,000 fpm (approximately
10 degrees). Extend speed brakes as necessary for increased rate of descent. Report departing the IAF
if requested. Start penetration turn 2.5 nm DME from the arc. At 5-7 nm prior to the FAF, slow to
200 KIAS. Configure the aircraft for landing 3-5 nm prior to the FAF and perform landing checklist (speed
brakes retracted). Conform to all course, altitude, and DME instructions on the approach plate. Lead
level off from penetration by 1,000 ft if VSI pegged at 6,000 fpm.
At the FAF, start the clock, extend speed brakes, report landing checklist complete on the ICS and make
gear down call to ATC. Descend to the MDA and start looking for the runway while monitoring your DME
for the MAP. Plan your descent to be in level flight at the MDA prior to reaching the MAP. From the FAF,
maintain precise course, speed, and rate of descent control. Do not exceed 1,000 fpm. Keep heading