(speed brakes retracted). You will have to retrim the nose to maintain level flight. When within 10 nm and
on an intercept heading that is within 30 degrees of the final approach course, slow to on-speed.
NOTE: USN/USMC controllers will state perform landing checks on the base leg; this is only a reminder
and does not direct the pilot to dirty up. If the controller says, slow to approach speed, the controller is
directing this for sequencing and the aircrew must comply or state that they are unable.
NOTE: GCAs can be flown at full, one-half, and no-flap configurations.
Because the remainder of the PAR and ASR final approach procedures differ considerably, they will be
discussed separately below.
PAR Final Approach
At the beginning of a PAR final approach, you will be straight and level, on-speed, and normally at
approximately 1,500 ft AGL. Restrict AOB to the approximate number of degrees to be turned, not to
exceed 1/2 SRT (approximately 10 degrees). Verify gear down, flaps at half or full. Trim aircraft for hands
off level flight. When the controller informs you that you are on glidepath, extend the speed brakes and
adjust power as required to establish a descent. Report, speed brakes full, landing checklist complete,
on the ICS.
The rate of descent will vary for different glideslope angles and ground speeds. The inside back cover of
the approach plates contains a chart that will provide you rate of descent for a given glideslope and
ground speed. Adjust power to maintain your rate of descent and keep the aircraft on-speed. When
making heading corrections, try to keep the amount of bank angle small (5-10 degrees) so that you dont
end up chasing the heading. If you get off heading, dont try to correct to course. Use smooth control
inputs and return to your last assigned heading.
As you near the decision height, begin an inside/outside scan to visually acquire the runway
environment. If you do not have the runway environment in sight when you reach the DH, execute a
missed approach (make the mandatory missed approach call).
ASR Final Approach
On the ASR final approach, the controller cannot furnish glideslope information. It will be up to you to
establish and maintain the correct rate of descent. The controller will identify the missed approach point
(MAP) in nautical miles from the end of the runway, and will direct the descent by stating, begin descent.
On pilot request, the controller will provide recommended altitudes each mile on final. Recommended
altitudes decrease 300 ft per mile (approximates a 3-degree glideslope). In order to smoothly level at
MDA prior to the MAP, your altitudes should be slightly lower than those recommended. Depending on
your ground speed, a descent rate of 500-700 fpm will allow you to descend to the MDA prior to reaching
the MAP. Upon reaching the MAP, if you do not have the runway in sight or are otherwise unable to
perform a safe landing, execute the missed approach as instructed.
RADIO INSTRUMENT APPROACHES
Radio instrument approaches, unlike GCAs, employ on-board navigational equipment as a guide and can
be flown, if necessary, without communication with the ground. In the T-45C, you will fly these
approachesVOR, TACAN, Localizer, and ILSin accordance with the published instructions found on
high or low altitude approach plates.
Plan ahead by reviewing the procedures for the chosen approach before arriving at the IAF and stay
ahead of the aircraft during the approach. Use all available NAVAIDs during the approach as backups in
the event of equipment malfunction. If, for example, you are flying an ILS approach at a field that also has
a TACAN, you should also tune the TACAN and select both TCN and ILS steering selected. TACAN
course information is shown on the HSI display and ILS information is shown on the ADI display.