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T-6A INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
CHAPTER FOUR
ORBITS
For training purposes, the holding pattern will be broken down into 3 types of orbits, which are
accomplished sequentially:
1.
Entry orbit.
2.
No-wind orbit.
3.
Correction orbit(s).
The entry orbit expeditiously establishes the aircraft inbound on the holding course. The no-
wind orbit determines the initial corrections required to compensate for existing winds. The
correction orbits update and refine the wind corrections. (Normally, ATC will expect you to
correct for winds immediately upon entering holding. This three-step procedure is used in
training to simplify the learning process.)
TIMING
Inbound Leg
1.
At or below 14,000 feet MSL: 1 minute.
2.
Above 14,000 feet MSL: 1 1/2 minute.
Outbound leg timing begins either over or abeam the fix, whichever occurs later. If the abeam
position cannot be determined, start timing when turn to outbound is completed.
NOTE
Timing is not required when leg lengths are determined by DME.
It is a good technique to hack a clock during DME holding to build
habit patterns. Additionally, a time hack will be needed to
determine when to remove outbound drift correction using triple
drift.
GENERAL OUTLINE OF HOLDING PROCEDURES
1.
Copy and read back holding clearance.
2.  Determine the holding course and its reciprocal. Determine the direction of holding from
the fix in terms of the eight cardinal compass points (e.g., N, NE, E, SE, etc.).
3.
Determine the direction of the entry turn.
4.
Entry orbit.
INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
4-31


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