T-6A INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
3. Failing to adjust no-wind solution for the actual or estimated winds, thereby "homing" to
the point, instead of tracking in a straight line.
Holding is a predetermined maneuver that keeps aircraft within a specified airspace until further
clearance is obtained from ATC. It may be accomplished at an intersection, a DME fix, or at a
radio facility. When cleared to hold by ATC, a specified airspace oriented about the holding fix
has been reserved which is clear of other air traffic. The extent of the cleared airspace is based
upon the maximum holding airspeed of the specific aircraft as listed in the FLIP GP and AIM.
If the holding pattern is charted and the controller doesn't issue complete holding instructions,
you are expected to hold as depicted on the appropriate chart. When the pattern is charted, the
controller may omit all holding instructions except the charted holding direction and the
statement as published (e.g., hold east as published). Controllers shall always issue complete
holding instructions whenever the aircrew request them.
An ATC clearance requiring an aircraft to hold at a fix where the pattern is not charted will
include the following information:
1. Direction of holding from the fix in terms of eight cardinal compass points (N, NE, E, SE,
2. Holding fix may be omitted if included at the beginning of the transmission as the
Radial, course, bearing, airway, or route on which the aircraft is to hold.
4. Leg length in miles if DME is to be used (leg lengths will be specified in minutes on
aircrew request or if the controller considers it necessary).
5. Direction of turn (if left turns are to be made, the aircrew requests, or the controller
considers it necessary).
Time to expect further clearance and any pertinent additional delay information.
If no holding pattern is charted and holding instructions have not been issued, you are expected
to ask ATC for holding instructions prior to reaching the fix. This procedure will eliminate the
possibility of an aircraft entering a holding pattern other than that desired by the ATC.
When an aircraft is 3 minutes or less from a clearance limit and a clearance beyond the fix has
not been received, the pilot is expected to start a speed reduction so the aircraft will cross the fix
at or below the maximum holding airspeed.
Report to ATC the time and the altitude/flight level at which the aircraft reaches the holding fix
and report leaving the holding fix.