Quantcast GPS Stand-Alone Approaches

 

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CHAPTER EIGHT
T-6A INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
recognizing certain points during the approach, and are visible on the FPL 0, SuperNav 5, and
SuperNav 1 pages. The IAF is denoted by (-i), e.g. FREBY-i. The FAF is denoted by (-f)(e.g.,
ELMOO-f.) The MAP is denoted by (-m)(e.g., MA25B-m.) The missed approach holding point
is denoted by (-h)(e.g., FITON-h.)
WARNING
The GPS always displays distance TO the active waypoint, which
is different than the DME distance FROM the NAVAID on the
IAP. Pilots must exercise extreme caution to preclude either a
dangerously early or late descent on final.
GPS STAND-ALONE APPROACHES
The GPS stand-alone approach is commonly known as the Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) or
"Basic T" approach. The objective of the TAA is to provide a seamless transition from the
enroute structure to the terminal environment for arriving aircraft equipped with GPS. GPS
TAA approaches make use of both fly-over and fly-by waypoints. Fly-by waypoints are used
when an aircraft should begin a turn to the next course prior to reaching the waypoint separating
the two route segments. This is known as turn anticipation and is compensated for in the
airspace and terrain clearance. Approach waypoints, except for the Missed Approach Waypoint
(MAWP) are normally fly-by waypoints. Fly-over waypoints are used when the aircraft must fly
over the waypoint prior to executing a turn. Approach charts depict fly-over waypoints with a
circle around the waypoint.
The "T" design incorporates from 1 - 3 IAFs (an intermediate fix (IF) that serves as a dual
purpose IF (IAF), a FAF, and a MAP) usually located at the runway threshold. The 3 IAFs are
normally aligned in a straight line perpendicular to the intermediate course, which is an
extension of the final course leading to the runway, forming a "T." The standard TAA consists
of 3 areas defined by the extension of the IAF legs and the intermediate segment course. These
areas are called the straight-in, left-base, and right-base areas. TAA area lateral boundaries are
identified by magnetic courses TO the IF (IAF).
The TAA approach procedure is a portion of the new and rapidly evolving GPS arrival procedure
program. For the most current and in-depth information on the TAA approach, consult the AIM,
Section 5-4-5.
REQUESTING GPS APPROACHES
Starting in February 2000, the FAA began the conversion of published GPS approaches currently
titled "GPS RWY XX" to the new RNAV (Area Navigation) plate entitled "RNAV RWY XX."
Many aircraft are not capable of conducting full RNAV precision approaches. In order to
provide full utilization to all operators who have the GPS capability, the FAA has agreed to add
"(GPS)" to the title of all RNAV procedures (e.g., "RNAV (GPS) RWY XX." Where multiple
8-4 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM


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