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CHAPTER THREE
FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
300. INTRODUCTION
In order to obtain a thorough understanding of the procedures discussed later in this manual and
to navigate properly on instruments, you must be able to visualize your position in relation to a
Radio NAVAID. To accomplish this, you need a thorough knowledge of the navigational
instruments, how they function, and what they depict. The remainder of this section will provide
a brief radio instrument orientation.
The EHSI is the most valuable instrument in the aircraft for maintaining orientation. You are
already familiar with one function of the EHSI. By checking the number beside the heading
index, at the top of the instrument, you are able to determine the aircraft's magnetic heading.
The EHSI has an additional function. This function allows the aircrew to determine its position
relative to a selected VOR station. The combination of both functions in one unit makes the
EHSI the primary navigation instrument in the aircraft.
In addition to a compass card, the EHSI contains two bearing pointers referred to as needles.
These needles can be selected independently to display either GPS or VOR information. For
standardization purposes, the single-needle will always be used with the VOR, and the double-
needle with the GPS. For the purposes of this discussion, we will refer to the needle selected to
display VOR information. The head of the needle points to the selected station and the tail of the
needle indicates the position of the aircraft from the station in terms of radials. Assuming all
equipment is working properly, the needle indicates both relative and magnetic bearing to its
associated station.
NOTE
In this example, only the single bar VOR bearing pointer will be
considered.
The lines extending from the VOR station in Figure 3-1 represent radials. The equipment in the
aircraft receives the signals from the station and displays this information on the EHSI so you
can then determine the aircraft's position relative to the VOR station.
In this example, the aircraft is flying a heading of 360. The tail of the VOR needle is on the
210 mark of the EHSI indicating a position southwest of the VOR on the 210 radial. In
relative terms, the VOR station is 30 to the right of the aircraft's nose.
FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUMENT NAVIGATION
3-1


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