Be predictable. Maintain smooth, precise air work.
Always be aware of your Wingman's position.
The conduct of the flight within the confines of the designated formation area presents
problems, which must be considered before the flight begins as well as in flight.
Basic to maneuvering within the area is an understanding of the area boundaries, and
of how certain maneuvers cause the flight to track over the ground. The student
should be able to visualize how combinations of turns can be used to maintain the
flight within the area. In flight, the Lead must constantly be aware of the next
sequential maneuver in order to determine the correct rollout heading from the present
maneuver. Other factors to be considered are the wind direction, which will affect the
track of the flight, and the position of the sun, which can preclude the Wingman from
seeing the lead aircraft, especially in early morning or late afternoon.
The Lead should conduct all maneuvers to ensure the Wingman's
exposure to looking into the sun is limited as much as possible.
2. The Wingman. The Wingman is primarily responsible for flight integrity. He must always
keep in mind the following:
Keep the Lead in sight and maintain proper position at all times.
Comply with all signals given by the Lead and, when required, be prepared to give a
Backup Lead (i.e., with navigation, transponder, Situational Awareness (SA), etc.)
and be prepared to assume lead at all times.
Crew Coordination. Additionally, it is important to understand, when discussing flight
discipline and conduct, the different responsibilities a student will encounter throughout the
various phases of flight depending on formation position. In order to optimize crew efficiency
when accomplishing the tasks listed in Sections 104(1) and 104(2) above, follow a few general
guidelines to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. For example, when you are the student in
the lead aircraft, your instructor's primary focus is cockpit scan and visual lookout. Thus, your
greatest contribution to good Crew Resource Management (CRM) may be monitoring Wingman
status/position. Conversely, if you are on the wing, your pilot will have an excellent awareness
of Lead's position at the expense of cockpit scan. Therefore, he may prefer student assistance
with the scan. To apply the above concepts we will use a section takeoff as an example. During
takeoff roll the Lead instructor will be concentrating on providing a smooth platform for the
Wingman, and the Lead student may have the best perspective on Wingman positioning and
status. The instructor on the wing will be concentrating his efforts on Lead and flying a smooth
wingman takeoff position. The student in the wing aircraft can backup the instructor by
1-4 INTRODUCTION TO FORMATION