413. IN-PLACE TURNS
In-place turns (Figure 4-18) are 180º turns the formation makes in the same direction. These
turns may be into or away from the Wingman and may be called or uncalled.
1. Called in-place turns are initiated by the Lead calling, "(Tactical Call sign), in-place
left/right". When the Wingman responds with "two", both aircraft execute a standard tactical
turn in the direction called. It should be noted that during turns into the Wingman, the Wingman
will momentarily lose sight of Lead and Lead assumes separation responsibility until the visual is
regained by the Wingman. Since this loss of visual contact is expected and briefed a "blind call"
is not required unless Lead is not reacquired when expected (i.e., rolling out of the turn).
2. Uncalled in-place turns are performed identical to called in-place turns except there are no
radio calls and will only be accomplished away from the Wingman. Uncalled in-place turns are
initiated by the Lead aircraft giving a wing flash away from the Wingman. After this signal, the
Wingman starts a standard tactical turn into the Lead (assuming a 90º tac turn) and then the Lead
turns immediately away from the Wingman in the same direction directing an in-place turn.
3. Both aircrafts' students accomplish visual lookout by checking old six for the first half of
the turn and new six for the last half. These calls are made over the ICS to the instructor (i.e.,
"Old six clear" or "New six clear").
Figure 4-18 In-Place Turn
414. CROSS TURNS
Cross turns (Figure 4-19) are 180º turns in which the Lead and the Wingman turn toward each
other. These turns are always into the Wingman and are always called.
SECTION PARADE 4-21