Special Use Airspace. Special use airspace has defined dimensions in which aircraft flight may be
restricted or which contains danger to flight operations. Special use airspace is depicted on ONC
and TPC charts unless it is activated only by NOTAM. Letter and numerals identify each area of
special use airspace and are internationally recognized. (Figures 1-6 and 1-7).
By referring to FLIP Area Planning AP-1A you can determine the coordinates (latitude and
longitude) that define the special use airspace area, affected altitudes, times of activation, and
controlling agency, if any. These areas are:
Prohibited area (P): Airspace through which aircraft are prohibited from flying.
Permission to cross it will rarely, if ever, be given by the controlling agency.
Restricted area (R): Airspace through which flight of aircraft is restricted. Permission may
be obtained to cross it from the controlling agency.
Warning area (W): International airspace which may contain hazards to non-participating
aircraft. Aircraft may fly through warning areas in international airspace without permission
from the controlling agency, but they do so at their own risk.
Military Operations Area (MOA): Airspace assignment of defined vertical and lateral
dimensions established for the purpose of separating certain military activities from IFR traffic.
Alert area (A): Contains a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aerial
activity. Both participating and non-participating pilots are responsible for collision avoidance.
Low-level, high-speed profiles degrade the enemy's ability to detect and engage your aircraft, but
higher fuel consumption, increased preflight planning, and greater chance of collision with the
ground offsets this advantage.
The SNFO/SNAV must be intimately familiar with the low-level chart. You must be able to
select the proper chart, plot the course, interpret chart symbols and terrain, and maintain the
aircraft on course and on time while avoiding known hazards to flights.
Generally, large-scale, small area charts such as a TPC are used for low-level flights because
these charts show a great amount of surface detail. Airports, ground elevations, radio aids to
navigation, cultural features, obstructions, special use airspace, and many other items of
information will be depicted on such a chart. However, since every road, stream, or other
suitable checkpoint cannot possibly be shown on the chart, it is extremely important you always
navigate from the chart to the ground and not from the ground to the chart.
In the second VNAV class you will learn how to prepare low-level charts for use on 180 KIAS,
1000 feet AGL low-level training routes.
CHART LEGEND REVIEW