able to find features quicker. At 180 knots, 2 minutes flight time is equal to 6 miles, well within
visual range. Critical to this step was having an accurate clock start at the entry point of the
Apply time to chart to determine what features and terrain trends should be visible and at what
time. Look for large features that can "point" to smaller features ("Funneling Features"). For the
bridge in Figure 3-2, such features include the river and the road. Attempt to determine features
that are big first, and then work towards the small features. Also look for features indicating you
have flown beyond your checkpoint ("Limiting Features"). A limiting feature might be a road
beyond your checkpoint. If you have reached the road you have obviously overflown the point,
and it's time to look for something else or turn as appropriate.
Figure 3-4 Wingspan
Visually search for the features, taking into account time and track position (e.g., I am a little
early and possibly left of course, so the checkpoint should appear earlier and to the right...).
Beware of "Fakers." These are uncharted features that distract you from desired checkpoint (e.g.,
multiple uncharted towers). Also beware of reversing this process with Ground, Chart, Clock. If
accomplished backwards you run the risk of convincing yourself the surrounding sight picture is
revealing a different position on the chart (e.g., "I see an inferred bridge, I have an inferred bridge
on the chart, I must be 20 seconds late"). Even though there are actually two bridges present.
If you are doubtful of your position, look for related details before the checkpoint so it can be
positively identified. Remember, the chart does not show all the details on the ground. For
example, if you note you are flying over a two-lane road, there is probably one on your chart for
3-6 VISUAL FIXING