In this chapter the focus switches from mission planning to mission execution. If our computed
headings were perfectly accurate, no crew deviations of heading or airspeed existed, and with no
wind in the low-level environment, the mission could be flown exactly as planned without in-
flight adjustment. Unfortunately, it just doesn't work that way! Even without wind effects,
various other errors combine to put us off course and off of planned time. Your job is to
compensate for winds and counter errors so the aircraft and/or weapons get to the right place at
the right time!
In addition to computing wind compensations and corrections, this section covers the crew
coordination and communications required for effective mission execution. This section teaches
the standard procedures and techniques for basic visual low-level navigation.
BASIC T-6A NAVIGATION
The Navigation mission planning materials are complete, but how do we use them?
Fundamentally, visual navigation uses the same basic navigation skill as any other phase of
flight. Turning at the right place at the right time and flying the correct altitude, heading and
airspeed are essential whether you are on a departure, approach, or enroute at high or low
altitudes. The main difference between Instrument Navigation and Navigation is in how we
verify our course and mission progress. Visual references allow us to fix our position and time
so that we can make adjustments as necessary. If these references are unavailable, "Dead
Reckoning" (DR) skills should be used and course adjustments should be made based on the best
information available. For instance, in the situation where our planned reference or turnpoint is
not visible, a turn should be made on the planned or updated time. This will maintain the aircraft
on the best-known course and timing.
It is inevitable that we will deviate to some extent from our preflight track and our scheduled
timing. Measurement and representation of the course, in-flight heading errors, mark-on-top
errors, and chart errors are just some of the contributing sources to time and position error. In
flight, you must identify and account for these factors when analyzing position and time.
Visual navigation flights are planned at a specific ground speed. Most T-6A Navigation flights
are planned at 180 knots ground speed. If there were no winds in the low-level environment,
flying 180 knots true airspeed (KTAS) would accomplish this. Therefore, an indicated airspeed
is calculated for the aircraft to fly based upon altitude and temperature to maintain 180 KTAS.
To accomplish this, take the current outside air temperature and apply it to the table shown
(Figure 4-2 and Figure 5-20). In order to arrive at the corrected outside air temperature, refer to
your T-6A Pocket Checklist. Calculate the temperature correction factor for a given combination
of Indicated Outside Air Temperature (IOAT) and Indicated Airspeed. The IOAT is displayed on
the primary engine data display. This indicated airspeed is then adjusted for wind to maintain