This chapter explains the fundamentals of flying. As in any learning process, fundamentals must
be mastered before the more advanced phases can be learned.
All controlled flight consists of one or a combination of straight-and-level, turning, climbing, or
descending flight. Vital to building basic flight fundamentals, proper attitude control is the result
of knowing what sight picture is required and smoothly utilizing the flight controls to put the
aircraft where it needs to be. When flying by outside reference (i.e. the horizon), your control
applications are accomplished by observing the relationship of some portion of the aircraft
(normally the nose section) to the horizon. It is imperative you utilize the same seat position on
each flight so that yourr references remain the same. As your flight skills develop, you will
acquire a continuous awareness of proper flying attitudes without conscious effort.
In introducing the basic flight maneuvers, the integrated flight instruction method will be used.
This means performing each flight maneuver by using both outside visual references and the
flight instruments. When using this composite technique, you will achieve a more precise and
competent overall piloting ability, properly maintaining desired altitudes, airspeeds, and
Aircraft control is composed of four components:
Pitch Control: Control of the aircraft about its lateral axis by applying elevator pressure to
raise or lower the nose, usually in relation to the horizon.
Bank Control: Control of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis by use of ailerons to attain
desired angle of bank (AOB) in relation to the horizon.
Yaw Control: Control of the aircraft about its vertical axis by use of rudder.
Power Control: Control of power or thrust by use of the PCL to establish or maintain
desired airspeeds in coordination with attitude changes.
The electronic attitude director indicator (EADI), electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI),
altimeter, vertical speed indicator (VSI), turn and slip indicator, and airspeed indicator, are the
instruments used as references to control the aircraft. The EADI displays both the pitch and bank
attitude of the aircraft while the EHSI shows the aircraft's direction of flight. The altimeter
indicates the aircraft's altitude and, indirectly, the need for a pitch change. The vertical speed
indicator shows the rate of climb or descent. The airspeed indicator shows the results of power
and/or pitch changes by the aircraft's speed. The outside visual references used to control the
aircraft include, but are not limited to, the nose cowling and the wingtips which help set and
maintain pitch attitude, flight direction, and AOB.