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INTERMEDIATE FLIGHT PREPARATION WORKBOOK
APPENDIX A
Takeoff Flightpath (One Engine)
The takeoff flightpath (one engine) is composed of several segments as follows:
1.
Takeoff ground run, brake release to lift-off.
2.  Takeoff flare from lift-off to 50-foot obstacle, achieving VCO at or before the 50-foot
obstacle.
3.  Climbout to 400 feet AGL, initiating gear retraction at or before the 50-foot height.
Maintain takeoff thrust.
4.  At 400 feet AGL, level off and accelerate to the final climbout speed. Retract flaps (10
flap takeoff) at the flap retraction speed. Maintain takeoff thrust.
5.
Climbout at the final climbout speed as required for obstacle clearance at MCT.
A102. APPROACH AND LANDING DEFINITIONS
Reference Speed
Reference Speed (VREF) is the 30 flap approach speed. Approach speeds for flaps 0 and 10
degrees are noted on the landing speeds chart.
Approach Speed
Approach Speed (VAPP) is the airspeed (KIAS) equal to 1.3 VS for a given flap setting.
VAPP Flaps 30 = VREF
VAPP Flaps 10 = VREF + 10 KIAS
VAPP Flaps 0 = VREF + 20 KIAS
Approach Climb Speed
Approach Climb Speed (VAC) is the airspeed (KIAS) for the approach climb configuration. VAC
equals VREF + 22 KIAS.
Runway Condition Reading
Runway Condition Reading (RCR) is a measure of tire-to-runway friction coefficient. RCR is
given as a whole number. Values vary from 26 (maximum friction coefficient) to 2 (minimum
friction coefficient). This value is used to define the braking characteristics for various runway
surface conditions. Some airfields report runway braking characteristics in accordance with
GLOSSARY
A-7


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