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RADIO INSTRUMENTS
CHAPTER THREE
After an unsuccessful approach in most tactical aircraft, and certainly in a T-2C, the crew cannot
afford the fuel cost of placing on file a request for a clearance to an alternate while flying at low
altitude, burning fuel at a high rate, awaiting processing, and issuance of the clearance.
If you decide there is a possibility that instrument approach(es) at the destination may not be
successful due to weather, a clearance is placed on file to an alternate prior to commencement of
the approach(es). In order to permit students an opportunity to demonstrate competency in
planning and filing this clearance, RI scenarios may prescribe placing the DRAFT on file,
regardless of simulated weather conditions. A convenient way to keep clearances organized is to
make an initial request to approach control for the holding and/or approach(es) desired at your
destination, and after those requests are acknowledged or clearances issued, THEN place on file
the request for what you want to do if those plans do not work out (i.e., place on file a DRAFT).
"Better late than never". If you realize after commencing approach(es), an intended DRAFT
clearance has not been placed on file, it is better to do it during an approach than to not have the
clearance available upon missed approach.
Holding Procedures
Holding is the maneuvering of an aircraft in relation to a navigational fix while awaiting further
clearance. The STANDARD no-wind holding pattern is flown by following a specified holding
course inbound to the holding fix, making a 180 turn to the right, flying a heading outbound to
parallel the holding course and making another 180 turn to the right to intercept and follow the
holding course to the fix (Figure 3-4). The holding pattern is NON-STANDARD when the turns
are made to the left. Unless published or otherwise instructed by ATC, aircrews are expected to
hold in a standard pattern. Because the primary navigation aid in the T-2 is the TACAN, T-2
holding will be in relation to a TACAN radial and DME fix.
Figure 3-4 Holding Pattern
Holding can be broken down into three sections, which will be discussed below. These three
sections would be entry procedures, the initial pattern, and the wind-corrected pattern. To
successfully hold one must also know the limitations for holding airspeeds and angle of bank and
be able to understand the holding clearance without question.
RADIO INSTRUMENTS
3-29


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