BASIC FIGHTER MANEUVERS (BFM)
limits will occasionally be exceeded, and the crew will suddenly find itself in uncontrolled flight.
Although sometimes spectacular, it is a phase of flight that should not be feared and is a natural
consequence of flying the aircraft to its limits. Every tactical pilot must be prepared to handle
uncontrolled flight by:
1. Knowing the Aircraft. Study the NATOPS Flight Manual. Particularly the "flight
characteristics" sections of NATOPS. Know the associated AOAs cold (i.e., expect rudder
shakers at 17.5 units AOA etc).
2. Knowing the Procedures. The recovery procedures must become second nature. The
stall recovery and out-of-control flight recovery procedures must be emphasized during flight
preparation. In VT-86, the T-2C OCF procedure will be reviewed prior to every flight.
Being Patient! Hasty direction of control application can aggravate the recovery.
4. Checking the Altimeter. When the aircraft is out of control, the altitude becomes time.
NATOPS will dictate altitude limits for out-of-control flight. Knowledge of such NATOPS
limitations is crucial.
Out-of-control flight is simply another phase of flight that every tactical aviator must be familiar
with. By knowing the procedures and maintaining a cool head, the aircraft should quickly
recover and be under control.
Deep Stall Investigation
This maneuver will demonstrate the flight characteristics of the T-2C in the deep stall regime:
up to 27-30 units AOA. The maneuver may be performed with fuel remaining in the tip tanks, if
desired. The Stall/ACRO Checklist shall be completed prior to the first departure.
The pilot will initiate the maneuver by trimming the aircraft at 150 KIAS with the landing gear,
flaps, and speedbrakes retracted. With the power reduced below 80%, the IP will raise the nose
to maintain 15 units AOA; note the rudder and aileron effectiveness. The IP will then increase
AOA to maintain 19 to 20 units. The student will note the activation of rudder shakers as the
AOA exceeds 17.5 units. The aircraft will be in light to moderate buffet and a mild porpoising
may be encountered. The IP will demonstrate good aileron and rudder effectiveness. Control
will be positive with a slight amount of mushiness noted.
The IP will then adjust back-stick pressure to raise the AOA to and maintain 24-26 units. At this
AOA, the reduced rudder effectiveness and the slight adverse yaw generated by aileron
deflection will be demonstrated. This is an excellent demonstration of the fact that an aircraft
can be stalled and still remain controllable (i.e., correctly responds to control inputs).
Next, the IP will increase the AOA to 28-29 units AOA. The aircraft will feel quite "mushy",
and may tend to roll in either direction. The IP should attempt to maintain level flight with the
rudder only. The pilot should not attempt to counter any roll tendencies with the ailerons.
Finally, the IP will move the ailerons slightly in either direction. Initially, a wings level yaw in
BASIC FIGHTER MANEUVERS (BFM)