BASIC INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES
Required periodic physiology training exposes the SNFO to the numerous spatial orientation
influences essential in flight. A complete review of the sensations of instrument flight may also
be found in the NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual.
Effective use of flight instruments to supplant the senses must be preceded by knowledge and
confidence. Secondly, interpretation of the combined reports of various instruments is
necessary. Attention must not be fixed on one instrument. The pilot must learn to scan the panel
and gain an almost instantaneous picture of the situation. An NFO must also learn to develop an
efficient scan pattern providing the pilot with descriptive information and when required, switch
to directive communication should the pilot become disoriented to the point of degraded
Next, it must be recognized that instrument perception is slower than sensory perception. Tests
show a visual interpretation of the actual horizon is one-fifth of a second faster than an
interpretation using instruments. Recovery from a dive takes one and one-half seconds longer on
Finally, one must remember that in instrument flight, factors such as fatigue, boredom, and
instrument fixation are more likely to occur. To counteract this, the crewmember may
occasionally move about in the seat, shake their head, or change the cockpit lighting.
102. AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS
Aircraft instruments are divided into three categories according to their specific function:
attitude/control instruments, performance instruments, and position instruments.
This chapter describes the basic instruments in each category and their functions. For more
information concerning specific instruments, consult the T-2C NATOPS Flight Manual.
Specifications on the power and operation of each instrument are covered in NATOPS Chapter
Attitude/Control Instruments. Attitude/control instruments display the attitude of the aircraft
relative to an artificial horizon.
Vertical Gyro Indicator (VGI). The primary flight instrument in the T-2C is the VGI. It
provides the crew with a substitute horizon as a reference in instrument flight. The instrument
shows a horizontal bar, representing the horizon, upon which a miniature aircraft is
superimposed. There are graduated scales on the instrument face to indicate angles of bank and
accurate, and the pilot must constantly refer to performance instruments in order to perform
precise instrument flight. Whenever a deviation from the desired performance is indicated on
one of the performance instruments, the correction should be made referencing the VGI.
Standby VGI. A standby VGI is located in each cockpit. It is used as an alternate attitude
indicator in the event the primary VGI fails, and as a crosscheck attitude instrument. The
standby VGI will work without AC power; however, it is not guaranteed to function for more
BASIC INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES 1-5