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VISUAL NAVIGATION The low-level training flights are VNAV5 through AVX2, and the flight schedule will
designate the route combinations by both NPA stereo route number (if applicable) and the
syllabus event (VNAV5/VNAV6, VNAV6/VNAV6, etc.)
6.5.2. Selecting the Appropriate Charts As with T-34 VNAV charts, T-1A/T-39 missions also use the TPC1/500,000 scale chart.
However, you may need to tape or glue two or more TPC charts together in order to meet the 20-
NM chart coverage restriction. As with your earlier chart construction, verify your chart editions
using the most current Chart Update Manual (CHUM).
6.5.3. Plotting the Points The AP-1B gives specific coordinates to plot defining the route for filing and course
tolerance purposes. However, these points may or may not have visual significance. Since the
route is flown using visual references as a primary means of navigation, we take the most
visually significant point within NM of the AP-1B coordinates. In order to provide a degree of
standardization between students and instructors, use the points specified in the T-1A/T-39 In-
flight Guide. These provide turn points with proven visual features.
6.5.4. Plotting Course Lines and Radius A course line is the actual path over the ground the aircraft follows when flying the low-
level route. In drawing T-34 VNAV charts, the turn radius was not a consideration due to the
slower airspeed and small turn radius of the T-34. However, in T-1A/T-39 VNAV mission
planning, a turn radius is necessary for every turn of 30 or more. At 300 knots, using 30 angle of bank, the turn radius of most jet aircraft is
approximately 2.5 NM, or a diameter of 5 NM. On a TPC scale chart, this equates to a dime-
sized circle. Use either a dime or the combat plotter to plot the turn radius from a point. Figures 6-3
through 6-6 illustrate the use of the combat plotter. Figure 6-3 shows that from point B to point
C a turn radius is not used since the turn is less than 30. A turn radius is required, however,
from point C to Point D. If using a dime, place the dime face down on the chart with the torch pointed at the turn
point, and perpendicular to the inbound course. Using a pencil, draw the turn radius in using the
dime as a template. With the radius drawn, use a straight edge to draw the course back from the
next point to a point tangent with the turn radius. In other words, with the turn radius drawn, use
the same technique as illustrated in Figure 6-6.

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