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STUDENT GUIDE
VISUAL NAVIGATION
NOTE: If the visual point does not cross the 12 o'clock position, return to compensated
heading, mark abeam the point and perform a standard correction. If the point is also a
turn point, apply the information in figure 7-7.
!" sing the HSI, estimate when a turn back to planned course will cause the point to
U
move to 12 o'clock. (Visualize the checkpoint on your course line.)
!" ead the turn back to course as necessary, so when the maneuver is complete you are
L
on compensated heading with the point at 12 o'clock.
!" or a detailed graphical representation of this maneuver, refer to pages 5-15 through
F
5-18 in the T-34 VNAV Student Guide.
7.7.1.1.3. Jungle Rules (Homing): "Jungle Rules" are used only on the target leg and
only after visually acquiring the target. With the target in sight, command the pilot to
turn "Hard Left/Right" or "Easy Left/Right." As the target approaches 12 o'clock, have
the pilot "Steady up" or "Roll out." In this situation, it is not necessary to cross the target
on flight planned heading.
7.9.2. Correcting for Time
7.9.2.1. In the T-1 and T-39 use a 30 knot speed change (10% of your base ground speed) to
correct timing deviations. At 300 kts ground speed, a 30 knot change (10%) will add or reduce
six seconds each minute. This equates to one second of change for every 10 seconds the
correction is in effect. As a result, any time correction you initiate will be a multiple of 10
seconds. As in T-34 operations, initiate timing corrections only for deviations of 12 seconds or
more from flight planned timing. There is one significant consideration that only applies to
timing corrections in the T-1. The limiting airspeed for the T-1 at low altitude is 330 KIAS (350
IAS for T-39). Compensations can make the required compensated greater than 300 KIAS. In
this situation, a full 30-kt correction is not possible as the correction airspeed exceeds 330 KIAS.
In this situation, make only a 15 or 10 knot correction, but maintain the correction airspeed for
twice or three times as long as the standard correction. The following example demonstrates
this:
EXAMPLE 7-5:
(1). Fix: You cross a highway perpendicular to your course at time 9+38, and preflight was
9+24. You were on time at your last checkpoint, 4+36. Base airspeed (compensated for
temperature) is 295 KIAS. What compensation and corrections should you apply?
(2). Analyze:
Preflight: 9+24
Actual: 9+38 14 seconds late
Time flown = 9+38 -  4+36 = 5+02
Using the 5 minute rule, 14 seconds over 5 minutes means 14 knots headwind (round to 15 kts.).
(3). Compensate: "I estimate 15 knots headwind. Compensated airspeed is 310 KIAS"
(295 + 15).
7-11


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