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STUDENT GUIDE
VISUAL NAVIGATION
2-4-2 Using visual references determine aircraft progress with respect to planned timing.
2-7-2 Apply distance off course over time flown to resolve cross wind components
affecting aircraft track.
2-7-3 Apply deviations from planned timing over time flown to resolve head and tail
wind components affecting aircraft timing.
2-6-1 Using resolved cross wind component adjust or make recommendations to flight
planned headings to compensate for wind effect.
2-6-2 Using resolved head/tail wind component, adjust or make recommendations to
flight planned airspeed to compensate for wind effect.
2-5-2 Using compensated heading and known distance from course, compute and apply
course corrections to maintain a visual low level course + 2nm.
2-5-3 Using compensated airspeed and known deviation from planned timing, compute
and apply corrections for errors in excess of 12 seconds to arrive on time at target, + 30
seconds.
2-6-3 Recognize deviations update planned ETA and course information as necessary.
7-9-1 State the proper format of radio calls particular to the low-level environment, such
as flight service and request for IFR flight following low level.
7-9-2 In order, state the items of VNAV two-minute prior, mark on top, intermediate
checkpoint, and wings level calls.
7-9-3 State the proper format for in-flight hazard calls for both obstruction and
bird/traffic avoidance.
7.4. BASIC JET VISUAL NAVIGATION
7.4.1. Changes in Visual Fixing
7.4.1.1. The concept of Fix, Analyze, Compensate, Correct, Update as a low level task
priorization tool have not changed from T-34 VNAVs. However, corrections are now permitted
prior to analyzation
7.4.1.2. The above format is essential to solid low-level visual navigation, and is a central focus
of T-1/T-39 VNAV instruction.
7.4.1.3. As stated in the introduction, this phase of training builds on the skills learned in T-34
VNAV flights. However, there are new challenges facing the student in T-1/T-39 visual
navigation. In addition to facing a more complex aircraft, the visual picture and mission pacing
change dramatically.
7.4.1.4. T-34 VNAV flight profiles typically provided 1500 to 2000 feet of terrain clearance.
This fixed MSL altitude provided an excellent view of the surrounding area, and at two minutes
prior, the turnpoint was only five miles away. For jet VNAV, the altitude will typically be
500'AGL, significantly reducing the visual distance to the horizon. Additionally, at 300 kts, two
minutes prior equals ten miles. These factors result in a much smaller time period that a given
turnpoint or checkpoint is visible. As this "window" of visibility is closer to the point, the time
7-2


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