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FLIGHT TRAINING PUBLICATION (FLIP) STUDENT GUIDE
CHAPTER SEVEN
4.
VOR - Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range
5.
LOC - Localizer
6.
SDF - Simplified Directional Facility
7.
LDA - Localizer Type Directional Aid
8.
ARA - Airborne Radar Approach
All Navy aircraft are capable of flying TACAN and ASR approaches. As in PAR approach,
ASR requires only an operational radio. The T-34C and T-1A are also equipped with a VOR in
addition to the TACAN. Localizer (LOC) and Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) approaches are
similar in that they use the azimuth portion of related precision approaches. An ILS approach
provides both azimuth and glideslope information to the pilot; a LOC approach provides only the
azimuth half of that system. An ASR approach provides the pilot with the azimuth half of a
PAR. A localizer back course (LOC BC) approach utilizes a localizer signal to a reciprocal
runaway by flying steering commands in reverse down to the missed approach point. Neither
LOC, LOC BC, nor ASR approaches provide an electronic glideslope.
IFR Arrival-Enroute Descent vs. Penetration
Aircrews that are flying in the high altitude structure have a choice of arriving via penetration or
enroute descent. The enroute descent may be requested by the pilot or initiated by the controller,
in which case he must advise the pilot of his intention to provide this service. The pilot may
refuse an enroute descent in favor of a high altitude penetration. The enroute descent, which
may begin more than a hundred miles from the destination airport, is designed to ease the aircraft
from the cruising altitude down to a final approach altitude. The penetration allows an aircraft to
remain at cruising altitude until making a rapid descent near the field on a high altitude
instrument approach procedure.
Penetration and Approach
An approach control facility, after receiving control responsibility from the ARTCC, will issue
the appropriate clearance to execute a specific instrument approach procedure. At first contact,
or at the latest prior to issuing the approach clearance, approach control will transmit the
altimeter setting, wind direction and velocity, runway information, current weather conditions,
and other information as appropriate. If ATIS is available, you are expected to copy this routine
information by tuning in the appropriate frequency and advising approach control on initial
contact that you have received ATIS, thus eliminating the need for the controller to repeat this
information.
Jet aircraft, normally operating in the high altitude structure, will often fly a High Altitude
Instrument Approach Procedure, which consists of a penetration and procedural track. The
penetration track takes an aircraft from the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) to the Final Approach Fix
(FAF) while descending to the minimum penetration altitude at 4000 - 6000 FPM and 250 KIAS.
TERMINAL PUBLICATIONS
7-3


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