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CHAPTER SEVEN
FLIGHT TRAINING PUBLICATION (FLIP) STUDENT GUIDE
Instructional Aids
FLIP Approach Plates
702. INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES
High Altitude Approaches vs Low Altitude Approaches - High approaches have a penetration
pattern depicted on the approach and have a hashed edge around the approach plate. They are
used to bring the aircraft down from the High Charts. Low approaches do not have a penetration
pattern depicted, and bring the aircraft down from the Low Charts.
Precision vs Non-Precision
Instrument approaches are separated into the general classes of precision and non-precision
approaches. Due to the space available for equipment, weight limitations, and operational
requirements, not all aircraft are equipped to execute every type of instrument approach.
Precision Approaches A precision approach is a standard instrument approach procedure in
which an electronic glidepath is provided, i.e., altitude information is available in addition to
azimuth. Five types of precision approaches are:
1.
ILS - Instrument Landing System
2.
MLS- Microwave Landing System
3.
PAR - Precision Approach Radar
4.
ACLS - Automatic Carrier Landing System
5.
CILS - Carrier Instrument Landing System
The PAR approach requires only an operational radio and is the only type of precision approach
capable of being flown by the T-34C aircraft, the T-1A is equipped for ILS approaches. Range
information is available from the PAR ground or carrier based controller, or by indications from
flying over the prescribed outer and middle markers on an ILS/MLS.
Non-Precision Approaches - A non-precision approach is a standard instrument approach
procedure in which an electronic glideslope is not provided, i.e., only azimuth, or azimuth and
range information is available. There are several types of non-precision approaches:
1.
TACAN - Tactical Air Navigation
2.
NDB Non-Directional Beacon (UHF and LF/MF)
3.
ASR - Airport Surveillance Radar
7-2
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