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FLIGHT TRAINING PUBLICATION (FLIP) STUDENT GUIDE
CHAPTER TWO
General
1.
All bearings are true and all radials are magnetic unless otherwise indicated.
2.
All altitudes are MSL unless otherwise indicated.
3.
All times are UTC unless otherwise indicated. A ++ symbol following time indicates that
during periods of daylight savings time, hours will be one hour earlier than shown. Consult the
applicable Enroute Supplement for areas and dates daylight savings time is observed.
4.  Zulu clock example - Zulu is the military term for Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This is the mean solar time at the Meridian of Greenwich,
England, used as a basis for standard time throughout the world.
Pensacola is +6 from Zulu time during Standard Time (ST) and +5 from Zulu during Daylight
Savings Time (DT). What is the Zulu time if it is 1000 local?
1000L + (+6) = 1600 Zulu time or 1600Z
For Daylight Savings Time it would be:
1000L + (+5) = 1500Z
To calculate local time from Zulu time is also easy.
1600Z - (+6) = 1000L (Standard Time)
1600Z - (+5) = 1100L (Daylight Savings Time)
During Daylight Savings Time, the calculation will change slightly if a "++" symbol follows the
Zulu time. An example of the operating times for a Warning Area follows:
Local Warning Area hours are 1700Z - 2400Z++
To convert this to local Pensacola time or Standard Time, just subtract 6:
1700Z - (+6) = 1100L
2400Z - (+6) = 1800L
Thus the local operating hours are 1100L - 1800L
For the DT calculation you first subtract one hour from the Zulu times, so that the local operating
times will remain the same.
(1700Z-1) - (+5 DT) = IIOOL (2400Z-1) - (+5 DT) = 1800L
With a "++" symbol the local operating hours remain the same, 1100L - 1800L, regardless of
whether it is Standard or Daylight Savings Time.
AREA PLANNING 1, 1A, AND 1B 2-7

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